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Conservatism (belief revision)

In cognitive psychology and decision science, conservatism or conservatism bias is a bias in human information processing, which refers to the tendency to revise ones belief insufficiently when presented with new evidence. This bias describes hum ...

                                               

Correction (newspaper)

A correction in a newspaper is usually the posting of the notice of a typographical error or mistake that appeared in a past issue of a newspaper. Usually, a correction notice appears in its own column. Newspapers usually have specific policies f ...

                                               

Coverage error

Coverage error is a type of non-sampling error that occurs when there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the target population and the sampling frame from which a sample is drawn. This can bias estimates calculated using survey data. For ...

                                               

Dead letter mail

Dead letter mail or undeliverable mail is mail that cannot be delivered to the addressee or returned to the sender. This is usually due to lack of compliance with postal regulations, an incomplete address and return address, or the inability to f ...

                                               

Dord

The word dord is a dictionary error in lexicography. It was accidentally created, as a ghost word, by the staff of G. and C. Merriam Company in the New International Dictionary, second edition. That dictionary defined the term a synonym for densi ...

                                               

Erratum

An erratum or corrigendum is a correction of a published text. As a general rule, publishers issue an erratum for a production error and a corrigendum for an authors error. An erratum is most commonly issued shortly after its original text is pub ...

                                               

Error analysis (mathematics)

In mathematics, error analysis is the study of kind and quantity of error, or uncertainty, that may be present in the solution to a problem. This issue is particularly prominent in applied areas such as numerical analysis and statistics.

                                               

Error card

In the trading card collecting hobby, an error card is a card that shows incorrect information or some other unintended flaw. It can contain a mistake, such as a misspelling or a photo of someone other than the athlete named on the card. Dependin ...

                                               

Error concealment

Error concealment is a technique used in signal processing that aims to minimize the deterioration of signals caused by missing data, called packet loss. A signal is a message sent from a transmitter to a receiver in multiple small packets. Packe ...

                                               

Error-tolerant design

An error-tolerant design is one that does not unduly penalize user or human errors. It is the human equivalent of fault tolerant design that allows equipment to continue functioning in the presence of hardware faults, such as a "limp-in" mode for ...

                                               

False confession

A false confession is an admission of guilt for a crime for which the confessor is not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research has demonstrated that false c ...

                                               

False etymology

A false etymology etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics – is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word. Such etymologies often have t ...

                                               

False friend

In linguistics, false friends are words in different languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning. An example is the English embarrassed and the Spanish embarazada, the word parents and the Portuguese parentes, or the ...

                                               

False memory

In psychology, a false memory is a phenomenon where a person recalls something that did not happen or recall it differently from the way it actually happened. Suggestibility, activation of associated information, the incorporation of misinformati ...

                                               

False positives and false negatives

In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease, when in reality it is not present, while a fal ...

                                               

Falsing

In telecommunications, falsing is when a decoder assumes that it is detecting a valid input even though one is not present. This is also known as a false decode. This article will discuss analog circuits used before digital signal processing. Exa ...

                                               

Floating point error mitigation

Floating-point error mitigation is the minimization of errors caused by the fact that real numbers cannot, in general, be accurately represented in a fixed space. By definition, floating-point error cannot be eliminated, and, at best, can only be ...

                                               

Flow meter error

In flow measurement, flow meter error is typically reported by a percentage indicating non-linearity of the device. This can be expressed as either a +/- percentage based on either the full range capacity of the device or as a percentage of the a ...

                                               

Fudge factor

A fudge factor is an ad hoc quantity or element introduced into a calculation, formula or model in order to make fit observations or expectations. Also known as a "Correction Coefficient" which is defined by: κ c = Experimental value Theoretical ...

                                               

Fundamental attribution error

In social psychology, fundamental attribution error, also known as correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the tendency for people to under-emphasize situational explanations for an individuals observed behavior while over-emphasizing dispo ...

                                               

Ghost word

A ghost word is a word published in a dictionary or similarly authoritative reference work, having rarely, if ever, been used in practice, and hitherto having been meaningless. As a rule a ghost word will have originated from an error, such as a ...

                                               

Goof

Generically, the word goof is another term for a mistake. However, the term is also used in a number of specific senses. Several origins have been proposed for the word. According to Merriam-Webster, "goof" is likely a variation of "goff" in an E ...

                                               

Grothendieck prime

                                               

Group attribution error

The group attribution error refers to peoples tendency to believe either that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole, or that a groups decision outcome must reflect the preferences of individual g ...

                                               

Groupthink

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Cohesiveness, or the desire for cohesivene ...

                                               

Healthcare error proliferation model

The healthcare error proliferation model is an adaptation of James Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model designed to illustrate the complexity inherent in the contemporary healthcare delivery system and the attribution of human error within these systems. ...

                                               

Hog-Morse

Hog-Morse was the tendency of inexperienced telegraph operators to make errors when sending or receiving in Morse code. It is so called after one example, "home" becoming "hog", which is just a subtle error in timing. The term was current in the ...

                                               

Imagination inflation

Imagination inflation refers to the finding that imagining an event which never happened can increase confidence that it actually occurred. This effect is relevant to the study of memory and cognition, particularly false memory. Imagination infla ...

                                               

List of experimental errors and frauds in physics

Experimental science demands repeatability of results but many experiments are not due to fraud or error. The list of papers whose results were later retracted or discredited, thus leading to invalid science is growing. Some errors are introduced ...

                                               

Literal translation

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence. In translation theory, another ...

                                               

Margin of error

The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in the results of a survey. The larger the margin of error, the less confidence one should have that a poll result would reflect the result of a survey of the entir ...

                                               

Memory error

Memory gaps and errors refer to the incorrect recall, or complete loss, of information in the memory system for a specific detail and/or event. Memory errors may include remembering events that never occurred, or remembering them differently from ...

                                               

Misattribution of memory

In psychology, the misattribution of memory or source misattribution is the misidentification of the origin of a memory by the person making the memory recall. Misattribution is likely to occur when individuals are unable to monitor and control t ...

                                               

Misinformation effect

The misinformation effect happens when a persons recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information. For example, in a study published in 1994, subjects were initially shown one of two different series of slides t ...

                                               

Mistakes were made

Mistakes were made is an expression that is commonly used as a rhetorical device, whereby a speaker acknowledges that a situation was handled poorly or inappropriately but seeks to evade any direct admission or accusation of responsibility by not ...

                                               

Moviemistakes.com

Moviemistakes.com is an Internet website created by Jon Sandys in September 1996. Its primary focus is to record mistakes found in film and television projects, with some books and games, and supplementary material covering trivia, quotes, DVD Ea ...

                                               

Mush from the Wimp

On March 15, 1980, The Boston Globe ran an editorial that began: Certainly it is in the self-interest of all Americans to impose upon themselves the kind of economic self-discipline that President Carter urged repeatedly yesterday in his sober sp ...

                                               

Naïve realism (psychology)

In social psychology, naïve realism is the human tendency to believe that we see the world around us objectively, and that people who disagree with us must be uninformed, irrational, or biased. Naïve realism provides a theoretical basis for sever ...

                                               

Near miss (safety)

A near miss, near hit ", close call ", or nearly a collision is an unplanned event that has the potential to cause, but does not actually result in human injury, environmental or equipment damage, or an interruption to normal operation. OSHA defi ...

                                               

Peary Channel (Greenland)

The Peary Channel was a hypothetical sound or marine channel running from east to west separating Peary Land in northernmost Greenland from the mainland further south. The assumed existence of this channel and other errors in Pearys maps reported ...

                                               

Personal equation

The term personal equation, in 19th- and early 20th-century science, referred to the idea that every individual observer had an inherent bias when it came to measurements and observations.

                                               

Postage stamp design error

A postage stamp design error is a mistake made during the design phase of the postage stamp production process. Design errors most commonly occur as minor mistakes, such as a missing letter in the binomial name of an organism depicted on the stam ...

                                               

Representational momentum

Representational momentum is a small, but reliable, error in our visual perception of moving objects. Instead of knowing the exact location of a moving object, we actually think it is a bit further along its trajectory. For example, people viewin ...

                                               

Retracted article on dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MDMA

Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA ", was a paper by Dr. George Ricaurte which was published in the leading journal Science, and later retracted. The reason was that instead of using MDM ...

                                               

Retraction Watch

Retraction Watch is a blog that reports on retractions of scientific papers and on related topics. The blog was launched in August 2010 and is produced by science writers Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus. Its parent organization is the Center for Sci ...

                                               

Retractions in academic publishing

In academic publishing, a retraction is a statement published in an academic journal stating that a peer-reviewed article previously published in the journal should be considered invalid as a source of knowledge. Online journals typically remove ...

                                               

Shooting errors

In firearm or airsoft shooting, shooting errors or shooting mistakes are shooters actions or external influences, leading to the consequence that a bullet or pellet misses the spot the shooter intended to hit. Shooting errors can be classified as ...

                                               

Slips and capture

Slips and capture is a type of error that may occur in high-stress situations. According to studies in the psychology of human error to improve medicine and business, a person may inadvertently perform one action while intending to do another. Th ...

                                               

Source criticism

Source criticism is the process of evaluating an information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a photo, an observation, or anything used in order to obtain knowledge. In relation to a given purpose, a given information s ...

                                               

Swiss cheese model

The Swiss cheese model of accident causation is a model used in risk analysis and risk management, including aviation safety, engineering, healthcare, emergency service organizations, and as the principle behind layered security, as used in compu ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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