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Impunity

Impunity means "exemption from punishment or loss or escape from fines". In the international law of human rights, it refers to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice and, as such, itself constitutes a denial of t ...

                                               

Incidental damages

Incidental damages refers to the type of legal damages that are reasonably associated with, or related to, actual damages. In American commercial law, incidental damages are a sellers commercially reasonable expenses incurred in stopping delivery ...

                                               

Indirect liability

Indirect liability refers to legal liability imposed on an entity which is facilitating an infringement of anothers rights, particularly of intellectual property rights, but not accruing benefit from the infringement. Indirect liability can be im ...

                                               

Information and belief

In the law of evidence, the phrase information and belief identifies a statement that is made, not from firsthand knowledge, but "based on secondhand information that the declarant believes is true". The phrase is often used in legal pleadings, d ...

                                               

Informed assent

The term informed assent describes the process whereby minors may agree to participate in clinical trials. It is similar to the process of informed consent in adults, however there remains some overlap between the terms.

                                               

Informed refusal

Informed refusal is where a person has refused a recommended medical treatment based upon an understanding of the facts and implications of not following the treatment. Informed refusal is linked to the informed consent process, as a patient has ...

                                               

Inhibition (law)

Inhibition, as an English legal term, particularly used in ecclesiastical law, is an act of restraint or prohibition, for a writ from a superior to an inferior court, suspending proceedings in a case under appeal, also for the suspension of a jur ...

                                               

Innominate jury

An innominate jury, also known as an anonymous jury, is a jury whose members are kept anonymous by court order. This may be requested by the prosecution or defense in order to protect the jury from the media, potential jury tampering, or social p ...

                                               

Interlocutory

Interlocutory is a legal term which can refer to an order, sentence, decree, or judgment, given in an intermediate stage between the commencement and termination of a cause of action, used to provide a temporary or provisional decision on an issu ...

                                               

Issue (genealogy)

"Issue" typically means a persons lineal descendants - all genetic descendants of a person, regardless of degree. Issue is a narrower category than heirs, which includes spouses, ancestors, and collaterals. This meaning of issue arises most often ...

                                               

Issuer

Issuer is a legal entity that develops, registers and sells securities for the purpose of financing its operations. Issuers may be governments, corporations or investment trusts. Issuers are legally responsible for the obligations of the issue an ...

                                               

Lawlessness

Anomie is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and their community, in which individuals do not feel bound by the moral strictures of society. The term was popularized by French sociologist Emile Durkheim in his influential 1897 book ...

                                               

Leading question

In common law systems that rely on testimony by witnesses, a leading question or suggestive interrogation is a question that suggests the particular answer or contains the information the examiner is looking to have confirmed. Their use is restri ...

                                               

Legal doublet

A legal doublet is a standardized phrase used frequently in English legal language consisting of two or more words that are near synonyms. The origin of the doubling - and sometimes even tripling - often lies in the transition from use of one lan ...

                                               

Legal hold

A legal hold is a process that an organization uses to preserve all forms of potentially relevant information when litigation is pending or reasonably anticipated. The legal hold is initiated by a notice or communication from legal counsel to an ...

                                               

Legal liability

In law, liable means "responsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies. ...

                                               

Legal nullity

Legal nullity refers to any entity which theoretically is, or might be, of some legal significance, but in fact lacks any identity or distinct structure of its own. The usual examples are counties or equivalent sub-regional groupings which are wh ...

                                               

Legal opinion

In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling. Opinions are in those jurisdictio ...

                                               

Legal recognition

Legal recognition of some status or fact in a jurisdiction is formal acknowledgement of it as being true, valid, legal, or worthy of consideration and may involve approval or the granting of rights. For example, a nation or territory may require ...

                                               

Legal recourse

A legal recourse is an action that can be taken by an individual or a corporation to attempt to remedy a legal difficulty. Petition to a legislature or other law-making body for a change in the law if a law is thought to be unjust. A lawsuit if t ...

                                               

Line of hereditary succession

In inheritance, a hereditary successor is a person who inherits an indivisible title or office after the death of the previous title holder. The hereditary line of succession may be limited to heirs of the body, or may pass also to collateral lin ...

                                               

Long cause

A long cause is a case whose trial is expected to take longer than that of a short cause, which in most jurisdictions is defined to be one day. Court rules governing long cause cases vary by local area. Cases will generally be identified as such ...

                                               

Loophole

A loophole is an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Originally, the word means an arrowslit, a narrow vertic ...

                                               

Malice (law)

Malice is a legal term referring to a partys intention to do injury to another party. Malice is either expressed or implied. Malice is expressed when there is manifested a deliberate intention to unlawfully take away the life of a human being. Ma ...

                                               

Malicious prosecution

Malicious prosecution is a common law intentional tort. While like the tort of abuse of process, its elements include intentionally instituting and pursuing a legal action that is brought without probable cause and dismissed in favor of the victi ...

                                               

Mandate (criminal law)

A criminal court may impose a "mandate" as part of a legal process on a person accused of a crime consisting of an obligation to engage in certain conditions or activities in exchange for suspension or reduction in penalty; such as, conditions of ...

                                               

Marital power

In civil law jurisdictions, marital power was a doctrine in terms of which a wife was legally an incapax under the usufructory tutorship of her husband. The marital power included the power of the husband to administer both his wifes separate pro ...

                                               

Material adverse change

In the fields of mergers and acquisitions and corporate finance, a material adverse change, material adverse event, or material adverse effect is a change in circumstances that significantly reduces the value of a company. A contract to acquire, ...

                                               

Material fact

A material fact is a fact that a reasonable person would recognize as germane to a decision to be made, as distinguished from an insignificant, trivial, or unimportant detail. In other words, it is a fact, the suppression of which would reasonabl ...

                                               

Materiality (law)

An item of evidence is said to be material if it has some logical connection to a fact of consequence to the outcome of a case. Materiality, along with probative value, is one of two characteristics that make a given item of evidence relevant. Th ...

                                               

McKenzie friend

A McKenzie friend assists a litigant in person in a court of law in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia by prompting, taking notes and quietly giving advice. They need not be legally trained or ...

                                               

Medical advice

Medical advice is the provision of a formal professional opinion regarding what a specific individual should or should not do to restore or preserve health. Typically, medical advice involves giving a diagnosis and/or prescribing a treatment for ...

                                               

Merit (law)

Merits, in law, are the inherent rights and wrongs of a legal case, absent of any emotional or technical bias. The evidence is applied solely to cases decided on the merits, and any procedural matters are discounted. The term comes from Old Frenc ...

                                               

Misfeasance

Misfeasance, nonfeasance and malfeasance are types of failure to discharge public obligations existing by common law, custom or statute. The Carta de Logu caused Eleanor of Arborea to be remembered as one of the first lawmakers to set up the crim ...

                                               

Mitigation (law)

Mitigation in law is the principle that a party who has suffered loss has to take reasonable action to minimize the amount of the loss suffered. As stated by the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal in Redpath Industries Ltd. v. Cisco, "It is well es ...

                                               

Moratorium (law)

A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law. In a legal context, it may refer to the temporary suspension of a law to allow a legal challenge to be carried out. For example, animal rights activists and conservation authorities m ...

                                               

Mute of malice

A mute of malice is a defendant in a criminal case who willfully chooses not to speak, as opposed to one who does not speak because he is physically or psychologically unable to do so. In British jurisprudence, a separate trial is held before the ...

                                               

Natural justice

In English law, natural justice is technical terminology for the rule against bias and the right to a fair hearing. While the term natural justice is often retained as a general concept, it has largely been replaced and extended by the general "d ...

                                               

Nota bene

Nota bene is a Latin phrase which first appeared in English writing c. 1711. Often abbreviated as NB, n.b., or with the ligature N B {\displaystyle \mathrm {N} \!\!\mathrm {B} }, the phrase is Latin for "note well" and comes from the Latin roots ...

                                               

Offer of proof

An offer of proof is a kind of motion that a lawyer may present to a judge or to the official presiding over an administrative hearing. It is an explanation made by an attorney to a judge during trial to show why a question which has been objecte ...

                                               

Omnibus hearing

An omnibus hearing is a pretrial hearing. It is usually held soon after a defendants arraignment. The main purpose of the hearing is to determine the evidence, including testimony and evidence seized at the time of arrest. The counsel for the pla ...

                                               

Open verdict

The open verdict is an option open to a coroners jury at an inquest in the legal system of England and Wales. The verdict means the jury confirms the death is suspicious, but is unable to reach any other verdicts open to them. Mortality studies c ...

                                               

Operative fact

An operative fact is a legally relevant fact that establishes a legal relationship between persons. For example, if a person is the beneficiary of a disability insurance policy, that person becomes entitled to benefits upon becoming disabled. Pro ...

                                               

Opinion privilege

Opinion privilege is a protected form of speech, of importance to US federal and state law. The US First Amendment guarantees free speech, subject to certain limitations. One of these limitations is defamation, in various forms, notably libel. Wh ...

                                               

Ordinary resolution

In business or commercial law in certain common law jurisdictions, an ordinary resolution is a resolution passed by the shareholders of a company by a simple or bare majority either at a convened meeting of shareholders or by circulating a resolu ...

                                               

Originating application

An originating application is the first, provisional, or primary application in any legal process, such as a lawsuit, application for a real estate mortgage, patent, or bankruptcy petition. In Australia, it is the first claim made in its Supreme ...

                                               

Overcharge

Overcharge is an economic term that refers to the difference between an observed market price and a price that would have been observed in the absence of collusion. The latter is often called a "but-for price" or a competitive "benchmark price". ...

                                               

Ownership

Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land or real estate, or intellectual property. Ownership involves multiple rights, collectively referred to as title, which may be separated and ...

                                               

Pain and suffering

Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury. Some damages that might come under this category would be: aches, temporary and permanent limitations on activity, potential shortening of life, dep ...

                                               

Pardon

A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be relieved of some or all of the legal consequences resulting from a criminal conviction. A pardon may be granted before or after conviction for the crime, depending on the laws of the juris ...