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Pythagoras

Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them ...

                                               

Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus, Thalēs, THAY -lees or TAH -lays ; c. 624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor. He was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Ari ...

                                               

Zeno of Citium

Zeno of Citium was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium, Cyprus. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid grea ...

                                               

Philosophy of architecture

Philosophy of architecture is a branch of philosophy of art, dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture.

                                               

Philosophy of design

Philosophy of design is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. The field, which is mostly a sub-discipline of aesthetics, is defined by an interest in a set of problems, or an interest in ...

                                               

Philosophy of film

The philosophy of film is a branch of aesthetics within the discipline of philosophy that seeks to understand the most basic questions regarding film. Philosophy of film has significant overlap with film theory, a branch of film studies.

                                               

Philosophy of information

The philosophy of information is a branch of philosophy that studies topics relevant to computer science, information science and information technology. It includes: the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of inf ...

                                               

Philosophy and literature

Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes, and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature.

                                               

Philosophy of psychedelics

Philosophy of psychedelics is the philosophical investigation of the psychedelic experience. While psychedelic, entheogenic or hallucinogenic substances have been used by many traditional cultures throughout history mostly for religious purposes, ...

                                               

Public philosophy

Public philosophy is a label used for at least two separate philosophical projects. One project often called "public philosophy" is to address issues of public importance through philosophy, especially in the areas of public policy, morality and ...

                                               

Somaesthetics

Somaesthetics is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry aimed at promoting and integrating the theoretical, empirical and practical disciplines related to bodily perception, performance and presentation.

                                               

Philosophy of war

The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war. Certain aspects of the philosophy of war overlap with the philosophy of h ...

                                               

Ashok Gangadean

Ashok Gangadean is a Trinidadian philosopher, author and spiritual activist. He is the Margaret Gest Professor of Global Philosophy at Haverford College in Haverford, Pennsylvania and the Founder and Director of the Global Dialogue Institute. He ...

                                               

Elisabeth of Bohemia Prize

The Elisabeth of Bohemia Prize is a prize that celebrates the long history of women in philosophy. The prize is named in honour of the philosopher Elisabeth of Bohemia, and is awarded to an internationally recognized philosopher for outstanding s ...

                                               

Jonardon Ganeri

Jonardon Ganeri, FBA, is a philosopher, specialising in philosophy of mind and in South Asian and Buddhist philosophical traditions. From 2020 he will hold the Bimal Matilal Distinguished Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Toronto. ...

                                               

M. A. Muqtedar Khan

Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan, born 1966, is a professor in the Department of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Delaware. Khan is the founding director of the Islamic Studies Program at the university. He chaired t ...

                                               

Marion Leathers Kuntz

Marion Leathers Kuntz was the Regents Professor of Classics at Georgia State University, a researcher in the history of Renaissance thought. She authored the first English translation of Jean Bodins Colloquium heptaplomeres de rerum sublimium arc ...

                                               

17th-century philosophy

17th century philosophy is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the medieval approach, especially scholasticism. It succeeded the Renaissance and preceded the Age of Enlightenment. It is often consid ...

                                               

19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century, the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a mov ...

                                               

Alphabet of human thought

The alphabet of human thought is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Leibniz that provides a universal way to represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their component pieces. All ideas are compounded from a very small ...

                                               

Aristotelian Society

The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square, London. The Aristotelian Society resolved "to constitute a soci ...

                                               

Axial Age

Axial Age is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age", characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE. During this period, according to Jaspers concept, new ways of t ...

                                               

Calculus ratiocinator

The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual la ...

                                               

Conatus

In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself. This "thing" may be mind, matter, or a combination of both. Over the millennia, many different definitions a ...

                                               

The Copernican Question

The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order is a 704-page book written by Robert S. Westman and published by University of California Press in 2011. This book is a broad historical overview of scholarly responses to ...

                                               

Doxography

Doxography is a term used especially for the works of classical historians, describing the points of view of past philosophers and scientists. The term was coined by the German classical scholar Hermann Alexander Diels.

                                               

Encyclopedia of Concise Concepts by Women Philosophers

The Encyclopedia of Concise Concepts by Women Philosophers, ECC for short, is the first online encyclopedia that exclusively contains entries on concepts from the work of female philosophers. The ECC is an open access database developed by the Ce ...

                                               

History of ethics

Ethics is the branch of philosophy that examines right and wrong moral behavior, moral concepts and moral language. Various ethical theories pose various answers to the question "What is the greatest good?" and elaborate a complete set of proper ...

                                               

Freethought

Freethought is an epistemological viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed only on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma. According to the Oxford English Di ...

                                               

Great Tew Circle

The Great Tew Circle was a group of clerics and literary figures who gathered in the 1630s at the manor house of Great Tew, Oxfordshire in southern England, and in London. Lord Clarendon referred to the Circle as "A college situate in a purer air ...

                                               

Dominicus Gundissalinus

Dominicus Gundissalinus, also known as Domingo Gundisalvi or Gundisalvo, was a philosopher and translator of Arabic to Medieval Latin active in Toledo. Among his translations, Gundissalinus worked on Avicennas Liber de philosophia prima and De an ...

                                               

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved recognition in his day and - while primarily influential in the continental tradition of philosophy - has become increasingly influenti ...

                                               

History of hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation. The tradition of Western hermeneutics starts in the writings of Aristotle and continues to the modern era.

                                               

International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science

The International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science is a philosophical organization for promoting the study of the history of philosophy of science. The society promotes exchange of ideas among scholars through meetings, journals, ...

                                               

Junto (club)

The Junto, also known as the Leather Apron Club, was a club for mutual improvement established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. The Leather Apron Clubs purpose was to debate questions of morals, politics, and natural philosophy, and ...

                                               

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause was a German philosopher, born at Eisenberg, in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. His philosophy, known as "Krausism", was very influential in Restoration Spain.

                                               

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a prominent German polymath and one of the most important logicians, mathematicians and natural philosophers of the Enlightenment. As a representative of the seventeenth-century tradition of rationalism, Leibnizs mos ...

                                               

Mean speed theorem

The mean speed theorem, also known as the Merton rule of uniform acceleration, was discovered in the 14th century by the Oxford Calculators of Merton College, and was proved by Nicole Oresme. It states that a uniformly accelerated body travels th ...

                                               

Modern Greek Enlightenment

The Phanariotes were a small caste of Greek families who took their collective name from the Phanar quarter of Constantinople where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is still housed. They held various administrative posts within the Ottoman Empire, the ...

                                               

Modern Stoicism

Modern Stoicism is an intellectual and popular movement that began at the end of the 20th century aimed at reviving the practice of Stoicism. It is not to be confused with Neostoicism, an analogous phenomenon in the 17th century. The term "Modern ...

                                               

Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world ...

                                               

Neoplatonism

Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion. The term does not encapsulate a set of ideas as much as it encapsulates a chain of thinkers which ...

                                               

Oxford Calculators

The Oxford Calculators were a group of 14th-century thinkers, almost all associated with Merton College, Oxford; for this reason they were dubbed "The Merton School". These men took a strikingly logico-mathematical approach to philosophical probl ...

                                               

Oxford Franciscan school

The Oxford Franciscan school was the name given to a group of scholastic philosophers that, in the context of the Renaissance of the 12th century, gave special contribution to the development of science and scientific methodology during the High ...

                                               

Pantheism controversy

The pantheism controversy was an event in German cultural history that lasted between 1785–1789 which had an effect throughout Europe. At the dawn of the first remarkable Spinoza revival in history, the break of the Pantheismusstreit marked the m ...

                                               

Philosophy in 90 Minutes series

The Philosophy in 90 Minutes series, written by Paul Strathern, is a series of short introductory biographical overviews on well-known philosophers, set in brief historical context, along with brief impressions of their philosophies. The books ar ...

                                               

Pittacus of Mytilene

Pittacus was a native of Mytilene and son of Hyrradius. He became a Mytilenaean general who, with his army, was victorious in the battle against the Athenians and their commander Phrynon. In consequence of this victory, the Mytilenaeans held Pitt ...

                                               

Platonism in Islamic Philosophy

Medieval Islamic philosophy was steeped in both Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism from its ninth-century beginnings with Al-Kindi, but the influence of Neoplatonism becomes more clearly visible in the tenth and eleventh centuries with Al-Farabi an ...

                                               

History of philosophy in Poland

Polish philosophy drew upon the broader currents of European philosophy, and in turn contributed to their growth. Among the most momentous Polish contributions were made, in the thirteenth century, by the Scholastic philosopher and scientist Wite ...

                                               

Positivism dispute

The positivism dispute was a political-philosophical dispute between the critical rationalists and the Frankfurt School in 1961, about the methodology of the social sciences. It grew into a broad discussion within German sociology from 1961 to 19 ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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