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Aporime

An aporime is a problem difficult to resolve, and which has never been resolved, though it may not be, in itself, impossible. The word is derived from the Greek ἄπορον, which signifies something very difficult and impracticable, being formed from ...

                                               

Benacerraf's identification problem

In the philosophy of mathematics, Benacerrafs identification problem is a philosophical argument developed by Paul Benacerraf against set-theoretic Platonism, and published in 1965 in an article entitled "What Numbers Could Not Be". Historically, ...

                                               

Bradley's regress

Bradleys Regress is a philosophical problem concerning the nature of relations. It is named after F. H. Bradley who discussed the problem in his 1893 book Appearance and Reality. It bears a close kinship to the issue of the unity of the proposition.

                                               

Competing goods

The balance of Competing goods is a philosophical problem involving the acknowledgement of multiple social values that may at times conflict with one another. The 20th-century philosopher Martha Nussbaum invokes Aristotle in her discussions of th ...

                                               

Demarcation problem

The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science and epistemology is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and belief ...

                                               

Eternity of the world

The question of the eternity of the world was a concern for both ancient philosophers and the medieval theologians and philosophers of the 13th century. The question is whether the world has a beginning in time, or whether it has existed from ete ...

                                               

Free will in antiquity

Free will in antiquity is a philosophical and theological concept. Free will in antiquity was not discussed in the same terms as used in the modern free will debates, but historians of the problem have speculated who exactly was first to take pos ...

                                               

Frege's puzzles

Freges puzzles are puzzles about the semantics of proper names, although related puzzles also arise in the case of indexicals. Gottlob Frege introduced the puzzle at the beginning of his article "Uber Sinn und Bedeutung" in 1892 in one of the mos ...

                                               

Problem of future contingents

Future contingent propositions are statements about states of affairs in the future that are contingent: neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. The problem of future contingents seems to have been first discussed by Aristotle in chapter ...

                                               

Hard problem of consciousness

The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why and how sentient organisms have qualia or phenomenal experiences - how and why it is that some internal states are subjective, felt states, such as heat or pain, rather than merel ...

                                               

If a tree falls in a forest

If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? is a philosophical thought experiment that raises questions regarding observation and perception.

                                               

Is–ought problem

The is–ought problem, as articulated by the Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume, states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is. Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference ...

                                               

Molyneux's problem

Molyneuxs problem is a thought experiment in philosophy concerning immediate recovery from blindness. It was first formulated by William Molyneux, and notably referred to in John Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The problem can be ...

                                               

Moral luck

Moral luck describes circumstances whereby a moral agent is assigned moral blame or praise for an action or its consequences even if it is clear that said agent did not have full control over either the action or its consequences. This term, intr ...

                                               

Necessary evil

A necessary evil is an evil that someone believes must be done or accepted because it is necessary to achieve a better outcome - especially because possible alternative courses of action or inaction are expected to be worse. It is the "lesser evi ...

                                               

Ordinary language philosophy

Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use. "Such philosophical ...

                                               

Problem of other minds

The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic: Given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? It is a cent ...

                                               

Predeterminism

Predeterminism is that all events are determined in advance. Predeterminism is the philosophy that all events of history, past, present and future, have been already decided or are already known, including human actions. Predeterminism is closely ...

                                               

Problem of mental causation

The problem of mental causation is a conceptual issue in the philosophy of mind. That problem, in short, is how to account for the common-sense idea that intentional thoughts or intentional mental states are causes of intentional actions. The pro ...

                                               

Problem of time

In theoretical physics, the problem of time is a conceptual conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics in that quantum mechanics regards the flow of time as universal and absolute, whereas general relativity regards the flow of tim ...

                                               

Regress argument

The regress argument is the argument that any proposition requires a justification; However, any justification itself requires support. This means that any proposition whatsoever can be endlessly questioned. It is a problem in epistemology and in ...

                                               

Why there is anything at all

The question Why is there anything at all? ", or, Why is there something rather than nothing? has been raised or commented on by philosophers including Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Martin Heidegger – who called it the funda ...

                                               

Religious philosophy

Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is inspired and directed by a particular religion. It can be done objectively, but may also be done as a persuasion tool by believers in that faith. There are different philosophies for each rel ...

                                               

Agni Yoga

Agni Yoga or the Living Ethics, or the Teaching of Life, is a Neo-Theosophical religious doctrine transmitted by Helena Roerich and Nicholas Roerich from 1920. The term Agni Yoga means "Mergence with Divine Fire" or "Path to Mergence with Divine ...

                                               

Esoteric Buddhism (book)

Esoteric Buddhism is a book originally published in 1883 in London; it was compiled by a member of the Theosophical Society, A. P. Sinnett. It was one of the first books written for the purpose of explaining theosophy to the general public, and w ...

                                               

Eternity

Eternity in common parlance means infinite time. In classical philosophy, however, it is defined as what exists outside time as describing supranatural beings and forces whereas sempiternity corresponds to the temporal, non-metaphoric definitions ...

                                               

Godel's ontological proof

Godels ontological proof is a formal argument by the mathematician Kurt Godel for the existence of God. The argument is in a line of development that goes back to Anselm of Canterbury. St. Anselms ontological argument, in its most succinct form, ...

                                               

Miracle

A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being, magic, a miracle worker, a saint, or a religious leader. Informally, the word miracle is often used to characterise any b ...

                                               

Scriptural reasoning

Scriptural Reasoning is one type of interdisciplinary, interfaith scriptural reading. It is an evolving practice in which Christians, Jews, Muslims, and sometimes members of other faiths, meet to study their sacred scriptures together, and to exp ...

                                               

Spiritual philosophy

Spiritual philosophy is any philosophy or teaching that pertains to spirituality. It may incorporate religious or esoteric themes, especially those from Theosophy or Neo-Theosophy, Anthroposophy, New Age thought, mysticism, and Eastern philosophy ...

                                               

Process Thinking

Process thinking, also known as "the process", is a philosophy that emphasizes preparation and hard work over consideration of outcomes or results, and is particularly popular in professional sports. Practitioners of process thinking focus on the ...

                                               

Philosophical theory

A philosophical theory or philosophical position is a set of beliefs that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy. The use of the term theory here is a statement of colloquial English and not reflective of t ...

                                               

Abstract object theory

Abstract object theory is a branch of metaphysics regarding abstract objects. Originally devised by metaphysician Edward Zalta in 1999, the theory was an expansion of mathematical Platonism. Abstract Objects: An Introduction to Axiomatic Metaphys ...

                                               

Agathism

Agathism, from the Greek ἀγαθός agathos is, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "The doctrine that all things tend towards ultimate good, as distinguished from optimism, which holds that all things are now for the best". An agathist accep ...

                                               

Animalism (philosophy)

In the philosophical sub-discipline of ontology, animalism is a theory of Personal Identity according to which human persons are animals. The concept of animalism is advocated by philosophers Eric T. Olson, Paul Snowdon, Stephan Blatti, and David ...

                                               

Anthropocentrism

Anthropocentrism is the belief that human beings are the most important entity in the universe. Anthropocentrism interprets or regards the world in terms of human values and experiences. The term can be used interchangeably with humanocentrism, a ...

                                               

Armchair theorizing

Armchair theorizing, armchair philosophizing, or armchair scholarship is an approach to providing new developments in a field that does not involve the collection of new information but, rather, a careful analysis or synthesis of existent scholar ...

                                               

Artificial philosophy

Artificial philosophy is a philosophical branch conceived by author Louis Molnar to consider what a being bestowed with artificial intelligence might consider about its own existence once it reaches a higher state of consciousness. The author rea ...

                                               

Assemblage (philosophy)

Assemblage is an ontological framework developed by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, originally presented in their book A Thousand Plateaus. Assemblage theory provides a bottom-up framework for analyzing social complexity by emphasizing fluidit ...

                                               

Bagism

Bagism is a satire of prejudice, where by living in a bag a person could not be judged on their bodily appearance. Bagism was created by John Lennon and Yoko Ono as part of their extensive peace campaign in the late 1960s. The intent of bagism wa ...

                                               

The Bear and the Gardener

The Bear and the Gardener is a fable of eastern origin that warns against making foolish friendships. There are several variant versions, both literary and oral, across the world and its folk elements are classed as Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 1586 ...

                                               

Bie-Modern

Bie-modern is a theory of social form and historical development elaborated by the Chinese philosopher and aesthetician Wang Jianjiang. Specifically, bie-modern theory is based on the difference between the western dynamical development model, wh ...

                                               

Black cat analogy

The Black Cat Analogy is an analogy, accounting for the differences, mainly between science and religion, but also between others, such as philosophy and metaphysics.

                                               

Byzantinism

Byzantinism, or Byzantism, is the political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors the Orthodox Christian Balkan countries of Bulgaria and Greece especially, and to lesser extend Serbia and Orthodox countries in ...

                                               

Casualism

Casualism in Philosophy is the philosophical view that the universe, its creation and development is solely based on randomness. The concept can be traced back to Epicurus 341 BCE – 270 BCE, however most of the original sources dealing with the c ...

                                               

Chemism

In the past, chemism referred to intramolecular forces between atoms, or more generally, any forces acting on atoms and molecules. It is now typically superseded by more precise terms such as hydrogen interaction.

                                               

Chronocentrism

Chronocentrism is the assumption that certain time periods are better, more important, or a more significant frame of reference than other time periods, either past or future. The perception of more positive attributes such as morality, technolog ...

                                               

Culturalism

In philosophy and sociology, culturalism is the central importance of culture as an organizing force in human affairs. It was originally coined by the Polish-American philosopher and sociologist Florian Znaniecki in his book Cultural Reality in E ...

                                               

Emergent evolution

Emergent evolution was the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, some entirely new properties, such as mind and consciousness, appear at certain critical points, usually because of an unpredictable rearrangement of the already existing ent ...

                                               

Exceptionalism

Exceptionalism is the perception or belief that a species, country, society, institution, movement, individual, or time period is "exceptional". The term carries the implication, whether or not specified, that the referent is superior in some way ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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