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Euthymia (philosophy)

Euthymia is a term used by Democritus to refer to one of the root aspects of human lifes goal. Diogenes Laertius records Democritus position as "The chief good he asserts to be cheerfulness euthymia; which, however, he does not consider the same ...

                                               

Eutrapelia

Eutrapelia comes from the Greek for wittiness and refers to pleasantness in conversation, with ease and a good sense of humor. It is one of Aristotles virtues, being the "golden mean" between boorishness and buffoonery. When construed narrowly, e ...

                                               

Exact sciences

The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences. Examples of the exact sciences are mathematics, optics, astronomy, ...

                                               

Existential phenomenology

Existential phenomenology encompasses a wide range of thinkers who take up the view that philosophy must begin from experience like phenomenology, but argues for the inability of philosophers to themselves exit existence in order to view the huma ...

                                               

Experimentalism

Experimentalism is the philosophical belief that the way to truth is through experiments and empiricism. It is also associated with instrumentalism, the belief that truth should be evaluated based upon its demonstrated usefulness. Deborah Mayo su ...

                                               

Extensional context

In philosophy of language, a context in which a sub-sentential expression e appears is called extensional if and only if e can be replaced by an expression with the same extension and necessarily preserve truth-value. The extension of a term is t ...

                                               

Extensionalism

Extensionalism, in the philosophy of language, in logic and semantics, is the view that all languages or at least all scientific languages should be extensional. Rudolf Carnap and Willard Van Orman Quine were prominent proponents of this view.

                                               

Facticity

In philosophy, facticity has multiple meanings--from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence.

                                               

Ferens Chair in Philosophy

The Ferens Chair in Philosophy, established in 1927, is one of the founding Chairs of the University of Hull and is supported by an endowment provided by the founder of the university Thomas Ferens. Previous occupants of the Chair include Thomas ...

                                               

Chomsky–Foucault debate

The Chomsky–Foucault debate was a debate about human nature, between Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault in the Netherlands, in November 1971. Chomsky and Foucault were invited by the Dutch philosopher Fons Elders to discuss an age-old question: "is ...

                                               

General intellect

General intellect, according to Karl Marx in his Grundrisse, became a crucial force of production. It is a combination of technological expertise and social intellect, or general social knowledge. The "general intellect" passage in the Fragment o ...

                                               

Gestell

Gestell is a German word used by twentieth-century German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe what lies behind or beneath modern technology. Heidegger introduced the term in 1954 in The Question Concerning Technology, a text based on the lec ...

                                               

Gnosology

In philosophy, gnosology literally means the study of gnosis, meaning knowledge or esoteric knowledge. The study of gnosis itself covers a number of subjects, which include magic, noetics, gnostic logic, and logical gnosticism, among others. Gnos ...

                                               

Gymnosophy

Gymnosophy was a movement and a philosophy practiced in Europe and the USA from the end of the 19th century to the mid 20th century. The practice involved nudity, asceticism, and meditation.

                                               

Habermas-Rawls debate

                                               

Hedone

Hedone was the personification and goddess of pleasure, enjoyment, and delight. Hedone, also known as Voluptas in Roman mythology, is the daughter born from the union of the Greek gods Eros and Psyche in the realm of the immortals. She was associ ...

                                               

Henology

Henology refers to the philosophical account or discourse on The One that appears most notably in the philosophy of Plotinus. Reiner Schurmann describes it as a "metaphysics of radical transcendence" that extends beyond being and intellection.

                                               

Heroic theory of invention and scientific development

The heroic theory of invention and scientific development is the hypothesis that the principal authors of inventions and scientific discoveries are unique heroic individuals – "great scientists" or "geniuses". A competing hypothesis is that most ...

                                               

Historical determinism

Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some p ...

                                               

Historical subject

Nietzsches critique of the historical subject is based in the rejection of an existing substance in favor of forces and wills combining to form combinations, sometimes in the form of a consciousness. Heidegger later traced the concept of subject ...

                                               

Hyle

In philosophy, hyle refers to matter or stuff. It can also be the material cause underlying a change in Aristotelian philosophy. The Greeks originally had no word for matter in general, as opposed to raw material suitable for some specific purpos ...

                                               

I'm entitled to my opinion

Im entitled to my opinion or I have a right to my opinion is a logical fallacy in which a person discredits any opposition by claiming that they are entitled to their opinion. The statement exemplifies a red herring or thought-terminating cliche. ...

                                               

Ideal theory (politics)

In political philosophy, ideal theory refers to argument concerning political or social arrangements under favorable assumptions. The phrase is associated with the work of John Rawls.

                                               

Idealistic pluralism

Idealistic pluralism is a philosophical position that suggests while an individuals understanding of the world might be limited to only the ideas within his or her mind, it can be known in this way by more than one mind. Idealistic pluralism reje ...

                                               

Idee reçue

An idee reçue, plural idees reçues, a French phrase literally meaning a received idea, is a generally held opinion or concept. This term was used by Gustave Flaubert in his work Le Dictionnaire des idees reçues to refer to cliches and platitudes, ...

                                               

Ideological repression

Ideological repression refers to forceful activities against competing ideologies and philosophies. Alan Wolfe defines ideological repression as "the attempt to manipulate peoples consciousness so they accept the ruling ideology, and distrust and ...

                                               

Idios kosmos

Idios kosmos comes from Greek and means private world. It exists with, and is opposite to, koinos kosmos. Idios kosmos is the view of the world that is developed from personal experience and knowledge and is therefore unique; however, it can be d ...

                                               

Immaculate perception

The expression immaculate perception was used by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in his text Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche argued that this kind of perception was mere fiction, for it ignores the intimate connection between the per ...

                                               

Immanent evaluation

Immanent evaluation is a philosophical concept used by Gilles Deleuze in his essay "Quest-ce quun dispositif?", where it is seen as the opposite of transcendent judgment. Deleuze writes about Michel Foucault: "Foucault. makes allusion to aestheti ...

                                               

Immediacy (philosophy)

Immediacy is a philosophical concept related to time and temporal perspectives, both visual, and cognitive. Considerations of immediacy reflect on how we experience the world and what reality is. It implies a direct experience of an event or obje ...

                                               

Indian political philosophy

The Vedic ; the Jain-Buddhist-Hindu ; the Indo-Islamic ; the modern or Indo-British ; and the contemporary. In India as elsewhere, political philosophy involves on the one hand speculations on the relationships between individual, society and sta ...

                                               

Indigenismo

Indigenismo is a political ideology in several Latin American countries which emphasizes the relationship between the nation state and indigenous nations and indigenous minorities. In some contemporary uses, it refers to the pursuit of greater so ...

                                               

Infinite regress

An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P 1 requires the support of proposition P 2, the truth of proposition P 2 requires the support of proposition P 3, and so on, ad infinitum. Distinction is made bet ...

                                               

Instant

In physics and the philosophy of science, instant refers to an infinitesimal moment in time, a moment whose passage is instantaneous. In ordinary speech, an instant has been defined as "a point or very short space of time," a notion deriving from ...

                                               

Interpretivism (legal)

The main claims of interpretivism are that There is no separation between law and morality, although there are differences. This is not in accordance with the main claim of legal positivism. Law is not immanent in nature nor do legal values and p ...

                                               

Intertheoretic reduction

In philosophy of science, intertheoretic reduction occurs when a reducing theory makes predictions that perfectly or almost perfectly match the predictions of a reduced theory, while the reducing theory explains or predicts a wider range of pheno ...

                                               

Invagination (philosophy)

In Continental philosophy, the term invagination is used to explain a special kind of metanarrative. It was first used by Maurice Merleau-Ponty to describe the dynamic self-differentiation of the flesh. It was later used by Rosalind E. Krauss and ...

                                               

Invincible error

An invincible error is, in Christian philosophy, a normally sinful action which is not considered sinful because it was committed through blameless ignorance that ones actions were harmful or otherwise prohibited. In the stated philosophy, a sin ...

                                               

Irreducibility

The principle of Irreducibility, in philosophy, has the sense that a complete account of an entity will not be possible at lower levels of explanation and which has novel properties beyond prediction and explanation. Another way to state this is ...

                                               

Isvarakrsna

Isvarakrsna is the author of the Samkhyakarika, an early account of the universe and its components according to the Samkhya school. Samkhya is one of the oldest of the six traditional systems of Indian philosophy which is attributed to the sage ...

                                               

Javelin argument

The javelin argument, credited to Lucretius, is an ancient logical argument that the universe, or cosmological space, must be infinite. The javelin argument was used to support the Epicurean thesis about the universe. It was also constructed to c ...

                                               

Kennisbank Filosofie Nederland

The Kennisbank Filosofie in Nederland is a database in which information can be found about philosophy, especially from the Netherlands. The bibliography consists of about 35.000 records of publications on philosophy in the Netherlands and Flande ...

                                               

Landscapes of power

In political philosophy, the landscapes of power are the features of the built environment that perform political functions - including establishing the hegemony of a governing entity or an ideological creed in a particular territory and cultivat ...

                                               

League of peace

League of peace is an expression coined by Immanuel Kant in his work "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch". The league of peace should be distinguished from a peace treaty because a peace treaty prevents or terminates only one war, while the ...

                                               

Leibniz's gap

Leibnizs gap is a philosophy of mind term that is used to refer to the problem that thoughts cannot be observed or perceived solely by examining brain properties, events, and processes. Here the word "gap" is a metaphor of a subquestion regarding ...

                                               

Letter to Menoeceus

Epicurus Epistle to Menoeceus is a summary of the ethical teachings of Epicurean philosophy written in the epistolary literary style, and addressed to a student. It addresses theology, the hierarchies of desires, how to carry choices and avoidanc ...

                                               

Linguistic film theory

Linguistic film theory is a form of film theory that studies the aesthetics of film by investigating the concepts and practices that comprise the experience and interpretation of movies.

                                               

List of nicknames of philosophers

Laughing Philosopher: Democritus The Jewish Luther: Moses Mendelssohn Plato: Aristocles son of Ariston, but see Plato#Name. The Philosopher: Aristotle Father of Logic: Aristotle Philosopher of Fascism: Giovanni Gentile Weeping Philosopher: Heracl ...

                                               

List of phenomenologists

This is a list of phenomenologists Hubert Dreyfus Moritz Geiger Karol Wojtyla Jean-Paul Sartre John Daniel Wild Jacques Taminiaux Roman Ingarden Aron Gurwitsch Herbert Spiegelberg Edith Stein Shaun Gallagher Burt C. Hopkins Fritz Kaufmann James M ...

                                               

Lived experience

In qualitative phenomenological research, lived experience refers to a representation of the experiences and choices of a given person, and the knowledge that they gain from these experiences and choices. It is a category of qualitative research ...

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