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Polish Philosophical Society

The Polish Philosophical Society is a scientific society based in Poland, founded in 1904 in Lwow, whose statutory goal is to practice and promote philosophy, especially onthology, theory of knowledge, logic, methodology, ethics, history of philo ...

                                               

Political authority

In political philosophy and ethics, political authority describes any of the moral principles legitimizing differences between individuals rights and duties by virtue of their relationship with the state. Political authority grants members of a g ...

                                               

Political philology

Political philology is "an active mode of understanding" texts. It does not simply take texts at face-value as religious texts without any connection to a social and political context, but situates them in a historical context, and is sensitive t ...

                                               

Premise

In logic, an argument requires a set of at least two declarative sentences or "propositions" known as the "premises" or "premisses" along with another declarative sentence or "proposition" known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises a ...

                                               

The problem of the speckled hen

In the theory of empirical knowledge, the problem of the speckled hen is whether a single immediate observation of a speckled hen provides a certain knowledge of the number of speckles observed. Clearly, this is not an isolated example, and there ...

                                               

Process of elimination

Process of elimination is a logical method to identify an entity of interest among several ones by excluding all other entities. In educational testing, the process of elimination is a process of deleting options whereby the possibility of an opt ...

                                               

Professor of Logic and Rhetoric

The Professor of Logic and Rhetoric is a professorship at the University of Glasgow. The Nova Erectio of King James VI of Scotland shared the teaching of moral philosophy, logic and natural philosophy among the Regents. In 1727, separate chairs w ...

                                               

Proof by assertion

Proof by assertion, sometimes informally referred to as proof by repeated assertion, is an informal fallacy in which a proposition is repeatedly restated regardless of contradiction. Sometimes, this may be repeated until challenges dry up, at whi ...

                                               

Pseudorationalism

Pseudorationalism was the label given by economist and philosopher Otto Neurath to a school of thought that he was heavily critical of, throughout many of his writings but primarily in his 1913 paper "The lost wanderers of Descartes and the auxil ...

                                               

Pub Philosophy

Pub Philosophy is a term sometimes used to describe organised gatherings in public houses for philosophical discussion. Several series of events in the United Kingdom and elsewhere offer pub philosophy in a variety of formats, typically involving ...

                                               

Public reason

Public reason refers to a common mode of deliberation that individuals may use for issues of public concern. The concept implicitly excludes certain assumptions or motivations that are considered improper as a basis for public decision making, ev ...

                                               

Pure practical reason

Pure practical reason is the opposite of impure practical reason and appears in Immanuel Kants Critique of Practical Reason and Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. It is the reason that drives actions without any sense dependent incentives. H ...

                                               

Radical interpretation

Radical interpretation is interpretation of a speaker, including attributing beliefs and desires to them and meanings to their words, from scratch - that is, without relying on translators, dictionaries, or specific prior knowledge of their menta ...

                                               

Radical sustainability

Radical sustainability recognizes that a system is not sustainable if any part of it is unsustainable. An economy cannot be sustained if the underlying social structure is unsustainable. A social structure cannot be sustained if the environment i ...

                                               

Radical unintelligibility

Radical Unintelligibility, a term coined by Bernard Lonergan, is the philosophical idea that we can act against our better judgment. We can refuse to choose what we know is worth choosing. It is the refusal to make a decision that one deems one o ...

                                               

Rationalist humanism

Rationalist humanism, or rational humanism or rationalistic humanism, is one of the strands of Age of Enlightenment. It had its roots in Renaissance humanism, as a response to Middle Age religious integralism and obscurantism. Rationalist humanis ...

                                               

Realphilosophie

The term Realphilosophie was first introduced by Hegel His Jenaer Realphilosophie of 1805/6 contains lectures "on the philosophy of nature and of the spirit". Hegel confronts the material philosophy of pure logic: Realphilosophie is thus thinking ...

                                               

Received view of theories

The received view of theories is a position in the philosophy of science that identifies a scientific theory with a set of propositions which are considered to be linguistic objects, such as axioms. Frederick Suppe describes the position of the r ...

                                               

Relation of Ideas

In philosophy, a relation is a type of fact that is true or false of two things. For instance, "being taller than" is a relation that is true of "Shaquille ONeal and Ross Perot" and false of "the Empire State building and Mt. Everest." Substances ...

                                               

Res extensa

Res extensa is one of the two substances described by Rene Descartes in his Cartesian ontology, alongside res cogitans. Translated from Latin, res extensa means "extended and unthinking thing" while the latter is described as "a thinking and unex ...

                                               

Rule egoism

Rule egoism is the doctrine under which an individual evaluates the optimal set of rules according to whether conformity to those rules bring the most benefit to himself. An action, therefore, is right if it promotes his welfare at least as well ...

                                               

Bertrand Russell Professorship of Philosophy

The Bertrand Russell Professorship of Philosophy is the senior professorship in philosophy at the University of Cambridge. It was established in 1896 and was named the Bertrand Russell Professorship of Philosophy in 2010 after a successful fundra ...

                                               

Satsang

Satsang / Satsanga / Satsangam is a word which comes from Sanskrit, meaning to associate with true people, or to be in the company of true people. It is also related to sitting with a sat guru, or in a group meeting seeking that association.

                                               

School of Abdera

The School of Abdera was a Pre-Socratic school of thought, founded in Abdera, Thrace around 440 to 430 BC. Its proponents, Leucippus and Democritus, were the earliest atomists. Leucippus is believed to be the founder, and was born at either Abder ...

                                               

School of Names

The School of Names, sometimes called the School of Forms and Names, was a school of Chinese philosophy that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period in 479–221 BCE. The followers of the School of Names were sometimes called the Logici ...

                                               

School of thought

A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement. Sc ...

                                               

Scientistic materialism

Scientistic materialism is a philosophical stance which posits a limited definition of consciousness to that which is observable and subject to the scientific method. The term is used as a pejorative by proponents of creationism and intelligent d ...

                                               

Semantic view of theories

The semantic view of theories is a position in the philosophy of science that holds that a scientific theory can be identified with a collection of models. The semantic view of theories was originally proposed by Patrick Suppes in" A Comparison o ...

                                               

Semicompatibilism

Semicompatibilism is the view that causal determinism is compatible with moral responsibility, while making no assertions about the truth of determinism or free will. The term was coined by John Martin Fischer. Prominent semicompatibilists includ ...

                                               

Social rights (social contract theory)

Social rights are those rights arising from the social contract, in contrast to natural rights which arise from the natural law, but before the establishment of legal rights by positive law. For example, James Madison advocated that a right such ...

                                               

Socratici viri

Socratici viri is a Latin phrase which translates as "Socrates men" - though it is more usually used to mean "disciples of Socrates" or "followers of Socrates". These are those, usually Greeks, who owe a lot of their philosophical reasoning and m ...

                                               

Sortal

Sortal is a concept that has been used by some philosophers in discussing issues of identity, persistence, and change. Sortal terms are considered a species of general term that are classified within the grammatical category of common or count no ...

                                               

Spanish philosophy

Spanish philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the people of territories that make up the modern day nation of Spain and of its citizens abroad. Although Spanish philosophical thought had a profound influence on philosophical traditions thr ...

                                               

Stanford School

The Stanford School is a group of philosophers of science, the members of which taught at various times at Stanford University, who share an intellectual tradition of arguing against the unity of science. These criticisms draw heavily from resear ...

                                               

State consequentialism

State consequentialism, also known as Mohist consequentialism, is a consequentialist ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how it contributes to the basic goods of a state, through social order, material wealth, and ...

                                               

State of affairs (sociology)

The state of affairs is the combination of circumstances applying within a society or group at a particular time. The current state of affairs may be considered acceptable by many observers, but not necessarily by all. The state of affairs may pr ...

                                               

Staying with the Trouble

Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene is a 2016 book by Donna Haraway, published by Duke University Press. In it, Haraway offers "making kin" as a way to consider multiple species and interact in a multiple species world. By emp ...

                                               

The Stone (blog)

The Stone is the New York Times philosophy series, edited by the Times opinion editor Peter Catapano and moderated by Simon Critchley. It was established in May 2010 as a regular feature of The New York Times Opinion section, with the goal of pro ...

                                               

Strategic essentialism

Strategic essentialism, a major concept in postcolonial theory, was introduced in the 1980s by the Indian literary critic and theorist Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. It refers to a political tactic in which minority groups, nationalities, or ethnic ...

                                               

Suns in alchemy

In alchemic and Hermetic traditions, suns are used to symbolize a variety of concepts, much like the sun in astrology. Suns can correspond to gold, citrinitas, generative masculine principles, imagery of "the king", or Apollo, the fiery spirit or ...

                                               

T-schema

The T-schema is used to give an inductive definition of truth which lies at the heart of any realisation of Alfred Tarskis semantic theory of truth. Some authors refer to it as the "Equivalence Schema", a synonym introduced by Michael Dummett. Th ...

                                               

Table of Opposites

The Table of Opposites of Pythagoras is the oldest surviving of many such tables propounded by philosophers. Aristotle is the main source of our knowledge of the Pythagorean table. Here follows a rough translation of the Table of Opposites, altho ...

                                               

Technological rationality

Technological rationality or technical rationality is a philosophical idea postulated by the Frankfurt School philosopher Herbert Marcuse in his 1941 article, "Some Social Implications of Modern Technology," published first in the journal Studies ...

                                               

Telos

A telos is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle. It is the root of the term "teleology", roughly the study of purposiveness, or the study of objects with a view to their aims, purposes, or intent ...

                                               

Temporality

In philosophy, temporality is traditionally the linear progression of past, present, and future. However, some modern-century philosophers have interpreted temporality in ways other than this linear manner. Examples would be McTaggarts The Unreal ...

                                               

Three Worlds Theory

In the field of international relations, the Three Worlds Theory, by Mao Zedong, proposes three politico-economic worlds: the First world, the Second world, and the Third world. In 1974, at the United Nations, Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping applied t ...

                                               

Ti (concept)

Ti is the Chinese word for substance or body. The philosopher Zhang Zai described the ti as "that which is never absent, that is, through all transformations." In Neo-Confucianism, this concept is often associated with yong, which means "use" or ...

                                               

Transcendent truth

Transcendent truths are those unaffected by time or space. They define the world, but are not defined by the world. An example of a transcendent truth is "God is good", or "there is no God". Either way, how one looks at things contained by time a ...

                                               

Transcendental apperception

In philosophy, Kantian transcendental apperception is that which Immanuel Kant thought makes experience possible. It is where the self and the world come together. Transcendental apperception is the uniting and building of coherent consciousness ...

                                               

Transmodernity

Transmodernity is a philosophical concept used by the Spanish philosopher and feminist Rosa Maria Rodriguez Magda in her 1989 essay La sonrisa de Saturno: Hacia una teoria transmoderna. Her approach, based on Hegelian logic, views modernity, post ...