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Spartakiad (Albania)

The Albanian Spartakiad was an event similar to the USSR Spartakiad and to the Czechoslovakian Spartakiad. Six such events had been held in Albania during Communist rule. The Spartakiad included a mass gymnastics display, professional and amateur ...

                                               

Spartakiad (Czechoslovakia)

The Spartakiads or Spartakiades in Czechoslovakia were mass gymnastics events, designed to celebrate the Red Armys liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945. The name refers to the 1921 Prague Spartakiad organised by the Communist Party of Czechoslova ...

                                               

Sport policies of the European Union

The European Union plays a minor and mostly indirect policy role in sport, because sport is normally considered to be outside the competences conferred by the member states to the European Union and sport is in general organised internally, on a ...

                                               

FC St. Pauli

FuSball-Club St Pauli von 1910 e.V., commonly known as simply FC St Pauli, is a German sports club based in the St. Pauli district of Hamburg. The football department is part of a larger sports club that also has departments in rugby FC St. Pauli ...

                                               

Stadium diplomacy

Stadium diplomacy is a form of cultural diplomacy practiced by the Peoples Republic of China through building and donating stadiums and sports facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and the South Pacific. China uses this form of ...

                                               

Eduard Streltsov

Eduard Anatolyevich Streltsov, 21 July 1937 – 22 July 1990) was a footballer from the Soviet Union who played as a forward for Torpedo Moscow and the Soviet national team during the 1950s and 1960s. A powerful and skilful attacking player, he sco ...

                                               

Summit Series

The Summit Series, or Super Series, known at the time simply as the Canada–USSR Series, was an eight-game series of ice hockey between the Soviet Union and Canada, held in September 1972. It was the first competition between the Soviet national t ...

                                               

Togo national football team attack

The Togo national football team bus attack was a terrorist attack that occurred on 8 January 2010 as the Togo national football team traveled through the Angolan province of Cabinda on the way to the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations tournament, two day ...

                                               

Turners

Turners are members of German-American gymnastic clubs called Turnverein. They promoted German culture, physical culture, liberal politics, and supported the Union war effort during the American Civil War. Turners, especially Francis Lieber, 1798 ...

                                               

United States v Iran (1998 FIFA World Cup)

United States v Iran, played on 21 June 1998, was a football match between Iran and the United States in the group stage of the 1998 FIFA World Cup at the Stade de Gerland in Lyon, France. The match, which is described as the "Mother of all games ...

                                               

USA–USSR Track and Field Dual Meet Series

USA-USSR Dual Track Meet Series was a track and field meeting between United States and Soviet Union. It was held 19 times during the Cold War era from 1958 to 1985. The meeting was arranged alternatively in both countries, exception being the la ...

                                               

El Viejo Clasico

El Viejo Clasico also known as El Otro Clasico is the name given to any football match between Athletic Bilbao and Real Madrid. Until 10 December 2011, this fixture was the most played in the history of Spanish football, when it was surpassed by ...

                                               

World Chess Championship 1972

The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union. The match took place in the Laugardalsholl arena in Rey ...

                                               

World Sports Values Summit for Peace

World Sports Values Summit for Peace is an international conference which is aimed at pursuing the value of the sports and discussing and disseminating how supports can be socially contribute to peace and respect for human rights.

                                               

Angels in the Infield

Angels in the Infield is a 2000 Disney television film directed by Robert King and starring Patrick Warburton, Brittney Irvin, David Alan Grier, and Kurt Fuller. A follow up to the 1994 film Angels in the Outfield, and the 1997 film Angels in the ...

                                               

Angels in the Outfield (1951 film)

Angels in the Outfield is a 1951 American comedy film produced and directed by Clarence Brown and starring Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh. Based on a story by Richard Conlin, the film is about a young woman reporter who blames the Pittsburgh Pirate ...

                                               

Chariots of Fire

Chariots of Fire is a 1981 British historical drama film. It tells the fact-based story of two athletes in the 1924 Olympics: Eric Liddell, a devout Scottish Christian who runs for the glory of God, and Harold Abrahams, an English Jew who runs to ...

                                               

The Forbidden Team

The Forbidden Team is a 2003 Danish documentary film directed by Rasmus Dinesen and Arnold Krojgaard. The leading cast consists of association football trainers Jens Espensen and Michael Nybrandt, the Tibet national football team and at the concl ...

                                               

Muscular Judaism

Muscular Judaism is a term coined by Max Nordau in his speech at the Second Zionist Congress held in Basel on August 28, 1898. In his speech, he spoke about the need to design the "new Jew" and reject the "old Jew", with the mental and physical s ...

                                               

Religious symbolism in U.S. sports team names and mascots

The following is a list of American sports team names and mascots that are based upon or use religious symbolism. Because of the prevalence of Christian groups and institutions throughout the history of the United States, many of these symbols ca ...

                                               

50+1 rule

The 50+1 rule is an informal term used to refer to a clause in the regulations of the Deutsche FuSball-Liga. The clause states that, in order to obtain a license to compete in the Bundesliga, a club must hold a majority of its own voting rights. ...

                                               

107% rule

The 107% rule is a sporting regulation affecting Formula One racing qualifying sessions. During the first phase of qualifying, any driver who fails to set a lap within 107 percent of the fastest time in the first qualifying session will not be al ...

                                               

Admiral-Lord Mountevans rules

Admiral-Lord Mountevans rules are a set of professional wrestling rules mainly used in British wrestling. They were named after Edward Evans, 1st Baron Mountevans who ordered a unified set of rules written up for professional wrestling in the Bri ...

                                               

Amateur Fencers League of America

The Amateur Fencers League of America was founded on April 22, 1891, in New York City by a group of fencers seeking independence from the Amateur Athletic Union. As early as 1940, the AFLA was recognized by the Federation Internationale dEscrime ...

                                               

Australian rules football playing field

An Australian rules football playing field is a venue where Australian rules football is played. The playing field is typically a large oval-shaped grass surface often modified cricket fields. These fields may vary especially for variations of th ...

                                               

Baseball field

A baseball field, also called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball is played. The term can also be used as a metonym for a baseball park.

                                               

Blood rule

The blood rule is a rule used in many sports that states that an athlete that receives an open wound, is bleeding, or who has blood on them or their clothes, must immediately leave the playing area to receive medical attention. Though they may be ...

                                               

Bouncing ball

The physics of a bouncing ball concerns the physical behaviour of bouncing balls, particularly its motion before, during, and after impact against the surface of another body. Several aspects of a bouncing balls behaviour serve as an introduction ...

                                               

Code of Points (artistic gymnastics)

The Code of Points is a rulebook that defines the scoring system for each level of competition in gymnastics. There is not a universal international Code of Points, and every oversight organization - such as the FIG, NCAA Gymnastics, and most nat ...

                                               

Collegiate wrestling

Collegiate wrestling is practiced at the college and university level in the United States. This style, with some slight modifications, is also practiced at the high school and middle school levels, and also among younger participants, where it i ...

                                               

Commonwealth Games Federation

The Commonwealth Games Federation, currently branded as Commonwealth Sport, is the international organisation responsible for the direction and control of the Commonwealth Games and Commonwealth Youth Games, and is the foremost authority in matte ...

                                               

Comparison of Gaelic football and Australian rules football

The comparison between Australian rules football and Gaelic football is the subject of controversy among historians. The question of whether the two codes of football, from Australia and Ireland respectively, have shared origins arises due to sim ...

                                               

Comparison of Gaelic football and rugby union

A comparison of Gaelic football and rugby union is possible because of certain similarities between the codes, as well as the numerous dissimilarities. Until the mid-1990s, both codes were strictly amateur. The highest level of Gaelic Football re ...

                                               

Decisions in combat sports

In combat sports, a decision is a result of the fight or bout that does not end in a knockout in which the judges scorecards are consulted to determine the winner; a majority of judges must agree on a result. A fight can either end in a win for a ...

                                               

Degree of difficulty

Degree of difficulty is a concept used in several sports and other competitions to indicate the technical difficulty of a skill, performance, or course, often as a factor in scoring. Sports which incorporate a measure of degree of difficulty incl ...

                                               

Disaster draft

A disaster draft or contingency draft is a disaster recovery plan developed by professional sports leagues to rebuild a teams roster if many players are disabled or killed.

                                               

Ejection (sports)

In sports, an ejection is the removal of a participant from a contest due to a violation of the sports rules. The exact violations that lead to an ejection vary depending upon the sport, but common causes for ejection include unsportsmanlike cond ...

                                               

Element (sports)

In sport, an element, skill, or trick is a distinct component of a performance with an assessed degree of difficulty. Skills may be performed in combination, increasing the measure of difficulty and thus the potential score. Some sports require a ...

                                               

ISU Judging System

The ISU Judging System), occasionally referred to as the Code of Points system, is the scoring system currently used to judge the figure skating disciplines of mens and ladies singles, pair skating, ice dance, and synchronized skating. It was des ...

                                               

Forms of cricket

Cricket is a multi-faceted sport with multiple formats, depending on the standard of play, the desired level of formality, and the time available. One of the main differences is between matches limited by time in which the teams have two innings ...

                                               

Fronton (court)

The front wall of the first frontons in villages was usually the wall of a church. Because the games being played close by, several priests would play pelota along with the villagers and got to be well-known players and often served as referees i ...

                                               

List of gridiron football rules

The following is a description of the various and alternating rules of gridiron football. Numerous leagues or organizations tend to send a laundry list of rules in order to better distinguish themselves from their counterparts.

                                               

American handball

American handball, known as handball in the United States, is a sport in which players use their hands to hit a small, rubber ball against a wall such that their opponent cannot do the same without the ball touching the ground twice nor hitting o ...

                                               

Hockey Rules Board

The Hockey Rules Board, which is a board under the Executive Board of the International Hockey Federation, produces rules for both indoor and outdoor field hockey. developing the rules while retaining the game’s well known and appealing character ...

                                               

Ice hockey rules

Ice hockey rules define the parameters of the sport of ice hockey. The sport is governed by several organizations including the International Ice Hockey Federation, the National Hockey League, Hockey Canada, USA Hockey and others. The rules defin ...

                                               

List of international sports federations

This is a list of international sports federations, each of which serves as a non-governmental governing body for a given sport and administers its sport at a world level, most often crafting rules, promoting the sport to prospective spectators a ...

                                               

Lacrosse

Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. It is the oldest organized sport in North America, with its origins in a tribal game played by eastern Woodlands indigenous peoples and by various Indigenous peoples of No ...

                                               

Laws of Australian rules football

The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, and been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws significantly predate the advent of a governing body for the sport ...

                                               

Laws of rugby league

In rugby league football, the Laws of the Game are the rules governing how the sport is played. The Laws are the responsibility of the Rugby League International Federation, and cover the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of the game. T ...

                                               

Laws of rugby union

The laws of Rugby Union are defined by World Rugby and dictate how the game should be played. They are enforced by a referee, generally with the help of two assistant referees. When playing a game of Rugby Union the overall objective is to score ...