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Forensic chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Specialists in this field have a wide a ...

                                               

Criminal investigation

Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts that are then used to inform criminal trials. A complete criminal investigation can include searching, interviews, interrogations, evidence collection and preservation, ...

                                               

Digital forensics

Digital forensics is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime. The term digital forensics was originally used as a synonym for computer fore ...

                                               

Forensic economics

Forensic Economics as defined by the National Association of Forensic Economics is the scientific discipline that applies economic theories and methods to matters within a legal framework. Forensic economics covers, but is not limited to: the cal ...

                                               

Edgeoscopy

Edgeoscopy is a method of identification through the examination of the unique details and characteristics found along the edges of individual fingerprint ridges. These characteristics are the result of the alignment and shape of the individual r ...

                                               

Entomotoxicology

In forensic entomology, entomotoxicology is the analysis of toxins in arthropods that feed on carrion. Using arthropods in a corpse or at a crime scene, investigators can determine whether toxins were present in a body at the time of death. This ...

                                               

Forensic epidemiology

The discipline of forensic epidemiology is a hybrid of principles and practices common to both forensic medicine and epidemiology. FE is directed at filling the gap between clinical judgment and epidemiologic data for determinations of causality ...

                                               

Forensic facial reconstruction

Forensic facial reconstruction is the process of recreating the face of an individual from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. It is easily the most subjective - as well as one of the ...

                                               

Forensic footwear evidence

Forensic footwear evidence can be used in legal proceedings to help prove that a shoe was at a crime scene. Footwear evidence is often the most abundant form of evidence at a crime scene and in some cases can prove to be as specific as a fingerpr ...

                                               

Forensic radiology

Forensic radiology is the discipline which comprises the performance, interpretation and reportage of the radiological examinations and procedures which are needed in court procedures or law enforcement. Radiological methods are widely used in id ...

                                               

Fractography

Fractography is the study of the fracture surfaces of materials. Fractographic methods are routinely used to determine the cause of failure in engineering structures, especially in product failure and the practice of forensic engineering or failu ...

                                               

Gait analysis

Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specifically the study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the ...

                                               

Forensic geology

Forensic geology is the study of evidence relating to minerals, oil, petroleum, and other materials found in the Earth, used to answer questions raised by the legal system. In 1975, Ray Murray and fellow Rutgers University professor John Tedrow p ...

                                               

Forensic geophysics

Forensic geophysics is a branch of forensic science and is the study, the search, the localization and the mapping of buried objects or elements beneath the soil or the water, using geophysics tools for legal purposes. There are various geophysic ...

                                               

Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident. Forensic means "for the courts".

                                               

Forensic limnology

Forensic limnology is a sub-field of forensic botany, which examines the presence of diatoms in crime scene samples and victims. Different methods are used to collect this data but all identify the ratios of different diatom colonies present in s ...

                                               

Marine forensics

Marine Forensic Science is forensic science applied to legal issues involving marine life. It also refers to the scientific study of incidents or accidents occurring as a result of or involving bodies of water including oceans, streams or rivers, ...

                                               

Forensic meteorology

Forensic meteorology is meteorology, the scientific study of weather, applied to the process of reconstructing weather events for a certain time and location. This is done by acquiring and analyzing local weather reports such as surface observati ...

                                               

Forensic metrology

Forensic metrology is metrology, the science of measurement, as it applies to forensic sciences. Forensic laboratories and criminalistic laboratories perform numerous measurements and tests to support both criminal and civil legal actions. Exampl ...

                                               

Forensic mycology

Forensic mycology is the use of mycology in criminal investigations. Mycology is used in estimating times or death or events by using known growth rates of fungi, in providing trace evidence, and in locating corpses. It also includes causes of de ...

                                               

Forensic palynology

Forensic palynology is the study of pollen, spores and other acid-resistant microscopic plant bodies, including dinoflagellates, to prove or disprove a relationship among objects, people and places that pertain to both criminal and civil cases. P ...

                                               

Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictio ...

                                               

Forensic photography

Forensic photography, also referred to as crime scene photography, is an activity that records the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence, in order to provide a permanent record for the courts. Crime scene photography differs ...

                                               

Forensic podiatry

Forensic Podiatry is a subdiscipline of forensic science in which specialized podiatric knowledge including foot and lower limb anatomy, musculoskeletal function, deformities and diseases of the foot, ankle, lower extremities, and at times, the e ...

                                               

Forensic polymer engineering

Forensic polymer engineering is the study of failure in polymeric products. The topic includes the fracture of plastic products, or any other reason why such a product fails in service, or fails to meet its specification. The subject focuses on t ...

                                               

Forensic profiling

Forensic profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities. This information can be used to identify suspects and convict them in a court of law. The term "forensic" in this context r ...

                                               

Forensic seismology

Forensic seismology is the forensic use of the techniques of seismology to detect and study distant phenomena, particularly explosions, including those of nuclear weapons. Because of the efficiency with which seismic waves propagate through the E ...

                                               

Forensic serology

Forensic serology is the detection, identification, classification, and study of various bodily fluids such as blood, semen, saliva, urine, breast milk, vomit, fecal matter and perspiration, and their relationship to a crime scene. A forensic ser ...

                                               

Forensic social work

Forensic social work is the application of social work to questions and issues relating to law and legal systems. This specialty of the social work profession goes far beyond clinics and psychiatric hospitals for criminal defendants being evaluat ...

                                               

Forensic statistics

Forensic statistics is the application of probability models and statistical techniques to scientific evidence, such as DNA evidence, and the law. In contrast to "everyday" statistics, to not engender bias or unduly draw conclusions, forensic sta ...

                                               

Forensic tire tread evidence

Forensic tire tread evidence records and analyzes impressions of vehicle tire treads for use in legal proceedings to help prove the identities of persons at a crime scene. Every tire will show different amounts of tread wear, and different amount ...

                                               

Forensic toxicology

Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is ...

                                               

Forensic video analysis

Forensic video analysis is the scientific examination, comparison and/or evaluation of video in legal matters. This definition is attributed to American Academy of Forensic Science. It is also the preferred definition by LEVA. LEVA is the most re ...

                                               

Wildlife forensic science

With the initiative of the Society for Wildlife Forensic Science SWFS, the Scientific Working Group for Wildlife Forensic Sciences SWGWILD was formed in 2011.

                                               

Agrogeology

Agrogeology is the study of the origins of minerals known as agrominerals and their applications. These minerals are of importance to farming and horticulture, especially with regard to soil fertility and fertilizer components. These minerals are ...

                                               

Environmental geology

Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. It is a multidisciplinary field that is closely related to engineering ...

                                               

Ethnogeology

Ethnogeology is the study of how geological features were understood by ancient peoples around the globe from a "place-based" perspective, in specific reference to traditional knowledge and to the stories and ideas about the Earth that were passe ...

                                               

Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes ref ...

                                               

Marine geology

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor. It involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal zone. Marine geology ...

                                               

Petrogenetic grid

A petrogenetic grid is a geological phase diagram that connects the stability ranges or metastability ranges of metamorphic minerals or mineral assemblages to the conditions of metamorphism. Experimentally determined mineral or mineral-assemblage ...

                                               

Phaleristics

Phaleristics, from the Greek mythological hero Phalerus via the Latin phalera, sometimes spelled faleristics, is an auxiliary science of history and numismatics which studies orders, fraternities, and award items, such as medals, ribbons, and oth ...

                                               

Church history

Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity and the way the Christian Church has developed since its inception. Henry Melvill Gwatkin defined church history as "the spiritual side of the ...

                                               

Counterfactual history

Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals. Black and MacRaild provide this definition: "It is, at the very root, the ide ...

                                               

Demographic history

Demographic history is the reconstructed record of human population in the past. Given the lack of population records prior to the 1950s, there are many gaps in our record of demographic history. Historical demographers must make do with estimate ...

                                               

Historical demography

Historical demography is the quantitative study of human population in the past. It is concerned with population size, with the three basic components of population change--fertility, mortality, and migration, and with population characteristics ...

                                               

Information history

Information history may refer to the history of each of the categories listed below. It should be recognized that the understanding of, for example, libraries as information systems only goes back to about 1950. The application of the term inform ...

                                               

Microhistory

Microhistory is a genre of history writing which focuses on small units of research, such as an event, community, individual, or a settlement. In its ambition, however, microhistory can be distinguished from a simple case study insofar as microhi ...

                                               

New Philology

New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view. The name New Philology was coined by James Lo ...

                                               

Political history

Political history is the narrative and survey of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history, as well as constitutional histor ...

                                               

Quantitative history

Quantitative history is an approach to historical research that makes use of quantitative, statistical and computer tools. It is considered a branch of social science history and has four leading journals: Historical Methods, Journal of Interdisc ...