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Polar meteorology

Polar meteorology is the study of the atmosphere of Earths polar regions. Surface temperature inversion is typical of polar environments and leads to the katabatic wind phenomenon. The vertical temperature structure of polar environments tends to ...

                                               

Snow science

Snow science addresses how snow forms, its distribution, and processes affecting how snowpacks change over time. Scientists improve storm forecasting, study global snow cover and its effect on climate, glaciers, and water supplies around the worl ...

                                               

Space weather

Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy, or heliophysics, concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magne ...

                                               

Chronostratigraphy

Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time. The ultimate aim of chronostratigraphy is to arrange the sequence of deposition and the time of deposition of all rocks within a geological ...

                                               

Paleoecology

Paleoecology is the study of interactions between organisms and/or interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales. As a discipline, paleoecology interacts with, depends on and informs a variety of fields includin ...

                                               

Paleogenetics

Paleogenetics is the study of the past through the examination of preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms. Emile Zuckerkandl and the physical chemist Linus Carl Pauling introduced the term "paleogenetics" in 1963, in refe ...

                                               

Paleolimnology

Paleolimnology is a scientific subdiscipline closely related to both limnology and paleoecology. Palaeolimnological studies are concerned with reconstructing the paleoenvironments of inland waters – and especially changes associated with such eve ...

                                               

Molecular paleontology

Molecular paleontology refers to the recovery and analysis of DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids, and their diagenetic products from ancient human, animal, and plant remains. The field of molecular paleontology has yielded important insights ...

                                               

Paleomycology

Paleomycology is the study of fossil fungi. A paleomycologist is someone who works in this field. Paleomycology is considered a subdiscipline of paleobotany.

                                               

Neoichnology

Neoichnology is the science of footprints and traces of extant animals. Thus, it is a counterpart to paleoichnology, which investigates tracks and traces of fossil animals. Neoichnological methods are used in order to study the locomotion and the ...

                                               

Paleobiology

Paleobiology is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the life science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. It is occasionally referred to as "geobiology". Paleob ...

                                               

Paleontographer

A paleontographer or palaeontographer is anyone who works in the field of palaeontography, a subset of paleontology. The term has been in use in this sense for more than a hundred and fifty years, for example by the Palaeontographical Society. Th ...

                                               

Paleopedology

Paleopedology is the discipline that studies soils of past geological eras, from quite recent to the earliest periods of the Earths history. Paleopedology can be seen either as a branch of soil science or of paleontology, since the methods it use ...

                                               

Paleozoology

Palaeozoology, also spelled as Paleozoology, is the branch of paleontology, paleobiology, or zoology dealing with the recovery and identification of multicellular animal remains from geological contexts, and the use of these fossils in the recons ...

                                               

Paleoparasitology

Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites from the past, and their interactions with hosts and vectors; it is a subfield of Paleontology, the study of living organisms from the past. Some authors define this term more narrowly, as "Paleoparasit ...

                                               

Sclerochronology

Sclerochronology is the study of physical and chemical variations in the accretionary hard tissues of invertebrates and coralline red algae, and the temporal context in which they formed. It is particularly useful in the study of marine paleoclim ...

                                               

Biostratigraphy

Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them. Usually the aim is correlation, demonstrating that a particular horizon i ...

                                               

Paleotempestology

Palaeotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records. The term was coined by American meteorologist Kerry Emanuel. The usual approach in palaeotempestology is t ...

                                               

Paleovirology

Paleovirology is the study of viruses that existed in the past but are now extinct. In general, viruses cannot leave behind physical fossils, therefore indirect evidence is used to reconstruct the past. For example, viruses can cause evolution of ...

                                               

Branches of physics

Physics deals with the combination of matter and energy. It also deals with a wide variety of systems, about which theories have been developed that are used by physicists. In general, theories are experimentally tested numerous times before they ...

                                               

Applied physics

Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge or connection between physics and engineering. "Applied" is distinguished from "pure" by a subtle combination of factors, such as th ...

                                               

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts. The three areas are closely interrelated. AMO theory includes ...

                                               

Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be modern, and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the p ...

                                               

Computational physics

Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. Historically, computational physics was the first application of modern computers in science, ...

                                               

Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter. In particular it is concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system ...

                                               

Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed o ...

                                               

Experimental physics

Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments. Methods vary from discipline to discipline, from simple experiments and ...

                                               

Mechanics

Mechanics is the area of physics concerned with the motions of macroscopic objects. Forces applied to objects result in displacements, or changes of an objects position relative to its environment. This branch of physics has its origins in Ancien ...

                                               

Microphysics

The term microphysics refers to areas of physics that study phenomena that take place on the microscopic scale, such as: Molecular physics Quantum mechanics Particle physics Mesoscopic physics Atomic physics Nuclear physics String theory Cloud ph ...

                                               

Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a wh ...

                                               

Particle physics

Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects, particle physics usually investigates the irreduci ...

                                               

Philosophy of physics

In philosophy, philosophy of physics deals with conceptual and interpretational issues in modern physics, and often overlaps with research done by certain kinds of theoretical physicists. Philosophy of physics can be very broadly lumped into thre ...

                                               

Physics of financial markets

Physics of financial markets is a discipline that studies financial markets from the perspective of physics. It seeks to understand the nature of financial processes and phenomena by employing the scientific method and avoiding beliefs, unverifia ...

                                               

Plasma (physics)

Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s. It consists of a gas of ions – atoms which have some of their orbital electrons removed – and free electrons. Plasma can be a ...

                                               

Pseudophysics

Pseudophysics is a pseudoscientific practice using the language of physics or discussing issues related to or pertinent to physics to promote ideas which are either incoherent or contradictory to known physics. According to physicists, skeptics, ...

                                               

Surface science

Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It includes the fields of surf ...

                                               

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a qu ...

                                               

American political development

American political development is a subfield of political science that studies the historical development of politics in the United States. In American political science departments, it is considered a subfield within American politics and is clo ...

                                               

American politics (political science)

American politics is a field of study within the academic discipline of political science. It is primarily, but not exclusively, studied by researchers in the United States. Along with comparative politics, international relations, and political ...

                                               

Behavioralism

Behaviouralism is an approach in political science that emerged in the 1930s in the United States. It represented a sharp break from previous approaches in emphasizing an objective, quantified approach to explain and predict political behaviour. ...

                                               

China watcher

A China watcher, or, less frequently, Pekingologist, is a person who reports on the politics of the Peoples Republic of China for western consumption, especially in a Cold War context. "China watching" was coined by analogy to birdwatching, which ...

                                               

Comparative politics

Comparative politics is a field in political science characterized either by the use of the comparative method or other empirical methods to explore politics within countries. Substantively, this can include questions relating to political instit ...

                                               

Political culture

Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that ...

                                               

Historical institutionalism

Historical institutionalism is a new institutionalist social science approach that emphasizes how timing, sequences and path dependence affect institutions, and shape social, political, economic behavior and change. Unlike functionalist theories ...

                                               

Kremlinology

Kremlinology is the study and analysis of the politics and policies of Russia while the term Sovietology means the study of politics and policies of the Soviet Union and former communist states more generally. These two terms were synonymous unti ...

                                               

Parliamentary informatics

Parliamentary informatics is the application of information technology to the documentation of legislative activity. The principal areas of concern are the provision, in a form conveniently readable to humans or machines, of information and stati ...

                                               

Peace and conflict studies

Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts, with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more d ...

                                               

Philosophy, politics and economics

Philosophy, politics and economics or politics, philosophy, and economics is an interdisciplinary undergraduate or postgraduate degree which combines study from three disciplines. The first institution to offer degrees in PPE was the University o ...

                                               

Positive political theory

Positive political theory or explanatory political theory is the study of politics using formal methods such as social choice theory, game theory, and statistical analysis. In particular, social choice theoretic methods are often used to describe ...

                                               

Post-behavioralism

Post-behavioralism also known as neo-behavioralism was a reaction against the dominance of behavioralist methods in the study of politics. One of the key figures in post-behaviouralist thinking was David Easton who was originally one of the leadi ...