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Kingdom of Mapungubwe

The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was a medieval state in South Africa located at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo rivers, south of Great Zimbabwe. The name is derived from either TjiKalanga and Tshivenda. The name might mean "Hill of Jackals". T ...

                                               

Museum integrated pest management

Museum integrated pest management is the practice of monitoring and managing pest and environmental information with pest control methods to prevent pest damage to collections and cultural heritage. Preserving cultural heritage is the ultimate go ...

                                               

Object conservation

Object conservation is a term used to denote the conservation of works of art and three-dimensional artifacts. Conservation encompasses all the actions taken toward the long-term preservation of cultural heritage. Activities include examination, ...

                                               

Oddy test

The Oddy test is a procedure created at the British Museum by conservation scientist William Andrew Oddy in 1973, in order to test materials for safety in and around art objects. Often, materials for construction and museum contexts are evaluated ...

                                               

Oliver Brothers Fine Art Restoration

Oliver Brothers Fine Art Restoration and Conservation is believed to be the first art restoration establishment in the United States. For more than one and one-half centuries, the Olivers and their successors have restored and conserved antique a ...

                                               

Opificio delle pietre dure

The Opificio delle pietre dure, literally meaning Workshop of semi-precious stones, is a public institute of the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage based in Florence. It is a global leader in the field of art restoration and provides teaching ...

                                               

Optical media preservation

The preservation of optical media is essential because it is a resource in libraries, and stores audio, video, and computer data to be accessed by patrons. While optical discs are generally more reliable and durable than older media types, enviro ...

                                               

Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives

The Oregon Hops and Brewing Archives, established in 2013, is a community archive in the U.S. dedicated to collecting, preserving, and sharing materials about the story of Northwest hops and brewing.

                                               

Paraloid B-72

Paraloid B-72 or B-72 is a thermoplastic resin that was created by Rohm and Haas for use as a surface coating and as a vehicle for flexographic ink. Today B-72 is commonly being used as an adhesive by conservator-restorers, specifically in the co ...

                                               

Polynomial texture mapping

Polynomial texture mapping, also known as Reflectance Transformation Imaging, is a technique of imaging and interactively displaying objects under varying lighting conditions to reveal surface phenomena.

                                               

Preservation (library and archival science)

In library and archival science, preservation is a set of activities aimed at prolonging the life of a record, book, or object while making as few changes as possible. Preservation activities vary widely and may include monitoring the condition o ...

                                               

Preservation and restoration of automobiles

The preservation and restoration of automobiles is the mechanical or cosmetic repair of cars. For example, the guidelines of the Antique Automobile Club of America AACA are to "evaluate an antique vehicle, which has been restored to the same stat ...

                                               

Preservation survey

Preservation survey is the process of collecting and analyzing data about the physical condition of library materials. Preservation surveys are used by libraries to determine the condition of their collections and identify necessary actions for p ...

                                               

Preservationist

Preservationist is generally understood to mean historic preservationist: one who advocates to preserve architecturally or historically significant buildings, structures, objects, or sites from demolition or degradation. Historic preservation usu ...

                                               

Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China

The Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China is a conservation charter promulgated in 2000 by China ICOMOS with the approval of State Administration of Cultural Heritage. It provides a methodological approach to the conservation ...

                                               

Protected area mosaic

A protected area mosaic, or conservation mosaic is a collection of environmentally protected areas that are treated as a whole, either formally or informally. The protected areas may be of different types, including strictly protected areas and s ...

                                               

Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed in the late 1940s at the University of Chicago by Wi ...

                                               

Radiography of cultural objects

The radiography of cultural objects is the use of radiography to understand intrinsic details about objects. This process can reveal various details about objects that are not visible to the naked eye. This information, which includes structural ...

                                               

Radiometric dating

Radiometric dating, radioactive dating or radioisotope dating is a technique which is used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares t ...

                                               

Raking light

Raking light, the illumination of objects from a light source at an oblique angle or almost parallel to the surface, provides information on the surface topography and relief of the artefact thus lit. It is widely used in the examination of works ...

                                               

Riga Charter

The Riga Charter on Authenticity and Historical Reconstruction in Relationship to Cultural Heritage, known simply as the Riga Charter, is an international charter or a statement of the scope, objectives and participants in cultural heritage proje ...

                                               

Romualdo Del Bianco Foundation

The Romualdo Del Bianco Foundation is an Italian non-profit organization established in Florence, Italy, on November 3, 1998 by Paolo Del Bianco - who entitled the Foundation to his father Romualdo. The Foundation is funded privately by Paolo Del ...

                                               

Save America's Treasures

Save Americas Treasures is a United States federal government initiative to preserve and protect historic buildings, arts, and published works. It is a public–private partnership between the U.S. National Park Service and the National Trust for H ...

                                               

Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin

The conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin refers to the conservation-restoration and enduring preservation of the Shroud of Turin to avoid further damage and contamination. Since 1578 the Shroud has been kept in the Royal Chapel of Turi ...

                                               

Sustainable preservation

In historic preservation, sustainable preservation is the idea that preservation has tangible ecological benefits, on the basis that the most sustainable building is one that is already built. Historic buildings can have advantages over new const ...

                                               

Textile stabilization

Textile stabilization is a conservation method used to stabilize weak points in textile pieces and prevent further degradation or damage to the fabric.

                                               

Thermoluminescence dating

Thermoluminescence dating is the determination, by means of measuring the accumulated radiation dose, of the time elapsed since material containing crystalline minerals was either heated or exposed to sunlight. As a crystalline material is heated ...

                                               

Paul Yeboah

Paul Yeboah, is an educator, farmer, permaculturist, community developer, and social entrepreneur. He is the founder and coordinator of the Ghana Permaculture Institute and Network in Techiman, Ghana, West Africa. It is located in the Brong-Ahafo ...

                                               

1966 flood of the Arno

The 1966 flood of the Arno in Florence killed 101 people and damaged or destroyed millions of masterpieces of art and rare books. It is considered the worst flood in the citys history since 1557. With the combined effort of Italian and foreign vo ...

                                               

Christopher Cock (auctioneer)

Christopher Cock was an eminent English auctioneer and picture restorer who lived and worked in London. His earliest known auction was in 1717. He operated from various premises in Soho until 1731, when he moved to the Great Piazza, Covent Garden ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of paintings

The conservation and restoration of paintings is carried out by professional painting conservators. Paintings cover a wide range of various mediums, materials, and their supports. Painting types include fine art to decorative and functional objec ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of panel paintings

The conservation and restoration of panel paintings involves working with an object that is composed of two media: wood and paint. The process of conservation and restoration of paintings on canvas is different from that of panel paintings. In th ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of Tibetan thangkas

The conservation and restoration of Tibetan thangkas is the physical preservation of the traditional religious Tibetan painting form known as a thangka. When applied to thangkas of significant cultural heritage, this activity is generally underta ...

                                               

Conservation-restoration of Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper

The conservation-restoration of Leonardo da Vincis The Last Supper is an ongoing project that has spanned many centuries. Completed in the late 15th century by the Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, the mural is located in the refectory of the ...

                                               

Conservation-restoration of Thomas Eakins' The Gross Clinic

The conservation-restoration of Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic refers to the on-going conservation-restoration treatments of American painter Thomas Eakins 1875 painting The Gross Clinic throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. These treatments ar ...

                                               

Cradling (paintings)

Cradling is a process used in the restoration and preservation of paintings on wooden panel. It consists in mounting a grid of wooden slats to the back of a painting to create a reinforcement and preserve the flat paint surface. Slats in either t ...

                                               

Craquelure

Craquelure is a fine pattern of dense cracking formed on the surface of materials. It can be a result of drying, aging, intentional patterning, or a combination of all three. The term is most often used to refer to tempera or oil paintings, but i ...

                                               

David with the Head of Goliath (Massimo Stanzione)

In 1947, Mrs. Harry Turpin gifted a Stanzione original painting titled David With the Head of Goliath to the Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego now the San Diego Museum of Art; the work was then attributed to Ribera, but was reattributed to Stanzione ...

                                               

Ecce Homo (Martinez and Gimenez, Borja)

The Ecce Homo in the Sanctuary of Mercy church in Borja, Spain, is a fresco painted circa 1930 by the Spanish painter Elias Garcia Martinez depicting Jesus crowned with thorns. Both the subject and style are typical of traditional Catholic art. W ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of painting frames

The conservation and restoration of painting frames is the process through which picture frames are preserved. Frame conservation and restoration includes general cleaning of the frame, as well as in depth processes such as replacing damaged orna ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of frescos

The conservation and restoration of frescoes is the process of caring for and maintaining frescos, and includes documentation, examination, research, and treatment to insure their long-term viability, when desired.

                                               

Historic paint analysis

Historic paint analysis is the scientific analysis of architectural finishes, including not only paints but also metallic finishes and clear and translucent finishes used on historic buildings. The primary purpose of such analysis is to determine ...

                                               

Keim's process

Keims process is a technique of fresco preparation and painting intended to maximize the lifetime of the finished work. The process, as reported in 1884 at the Royal Society of Arts in London, was created by chemist and craftsman Adolf Wilhelm Ke ...

                                               

Lining of paintings

The lining of paintings is a process of restoration used to strengthen, flatten or consolidate oil or tempera paintings on canvas by attaching a new canvas to the back of the existing one. The process is sometimes referred to as relining. In case ...

                                               

Overpainting

Overpainting can mean the final layers of paint, over some type of underpainting, in a system of working in layers. It can also mean later paint added by restorers, or an artist or dealer wishing to "improve" or update an old image - a very commo ...

                                               

Picture framing glass

Picture framing glass usually refers to flat glass or acrylic used for framing artwork and for presenting art objects in a display box.

                                               

Saponification

Saponification is a process that involves conversion of fat or oil or lipid into soap and alcohol by the action of heat in the presence of aqueous alkali. Soaps are salts of fatty acids and fatty acids are monocarboxylic acids that have long carb ...

                                               

Thesaurus florentinus

Thesaurus Florentinus is a project for the acquisition and reconstruction of the images of the mural paintings in the Cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence and a computer system to manage the hundreds of thousand pieces of information gathe ...

                                               

Transfer of panel paintings

The practice of conserving an unstable painting on panel by transferring it from its original decayed, worm-eaten, cracked, or distorted wood support to canvas or a new panel has been practised since the 18th century. It has now been largely supe ...

                                               

Classical order

An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the archite ...