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Eschatological verification

Eschatological verification describes a process whereby a proposition can be verified after death. A proposition such as "there is an afterlife" is verifiable if true but not falsifiable if false. The term is most commonly used in relation to God ...

                                               

Eternal return

Eternal return is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. The theory is found in Indian philosophy a ...

                                               

Euthyphro dilemma

The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro, "Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?" Although it was originally applied to the ancient ...

                                               

Evangelical Philosophical Society

The Evangelical Philosophical Society is an organization devoted to the study of ethics, theology, and religion from an evangelical perspective. Membership is open to professional scholars and associate membership is available to laypersons and s ...

                                               

Evolutionary argument against naturalism

The evolutionary argument against naturalism is a philosophical argument asserting a problem with believing both evolution and philosophical naturalism simultaneously. The argument was first proposed by Alvin Plantinga in 1993 and "raises issues ...

                                               

Existence of God

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture. A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophica ...

                                               

Faith and rationality

Faith and rationality are two ideologies that exist in varying degrees of conflict or compatibility. Rationality is based on reason or facts. Faith is belief in inspiration, revelation, or authority. The word faith sometimes refers to a belief th ...

                                               

Fideism

Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths. The word fideism comes from fides, the Latin word ...

                                               

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers

Gaunilo or Gaunillon was a Benedictine monk of Marmoutier Abbey in Tours, France. He is best known for his contemporary criticism of the ontological argument for the existence of God which appeared in St Anselms Proslogion. In his work In Behalf ...

                                               

Ibtina theory

Ibtina theory is a new theory in the field of "logic of understanding religion" and has direct influence on the issues of philosophy of religion. Ibtina theory is a theory for explaining the process and mechanism of "religious knowledge" formation.

                                               

Implicit and explicit atheism

Implicit atheism and explicit atheism are types of atheism. In George H. Smiths Atheism: The Case Against God, "implicit atheism" is defined as "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it", while "explicit atheism" is "the ...

                                               

Indifferentism

Indifferentism, in the Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another. The Catholic Church ascribes indifferentism to many atheistic, materialistic, pantheistic, and agnostic philosophies. The ...

                                               

Integral humanism (Maritain)

Jacques Maritain, the French Catholic philosopher and author of over 60 books, advocated what he called "Integral Christian Humanism". He argued that secular forms of humanism were inevitably anti-human in that they refused to recognize the whole ...

                                               

Irenaean theodicy

The Irenaean theodicy is a Christian theodicy. It defends the probability of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent God in the face of evidence of evil in the world. Numerous variations of theodicy have been proposed which all maintain that, while evil ...

                                               

Kalam cosmological argument

The Kalām cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God; named for the kalam, it was popularized by William Lane Craig in his The Kalām Cosmological Argument. The argument is similar to the un ...

                                               

Kant's antinomies

Immanuel Kants antinomies, from the Critique of Pure Reason, are contradictions which he believed follow necessarily from our attempts to conceive the nature of transcendent reality. Kant thought that certain of his antinomies God and Freedom cou ...

                                               

Malakut

Al-Malakut meaning Realm of Dominion, is an invisible realm, in Islamic cosmology, containing several metaphysical beings and places in Islamic lore, like angels, demons, jinn, hell and the seven heavens. It is sometimes used interchangeable with ...

                                               

Metanoetics

Metanoetics and zange 懺悔) is a neologism coined by Hajime Tanabe in Philosophy as Metanoetics to denote a way of doing philosophy that understands the limits of reason and the power of radical evil. Though the method used by Tanabe to reach thi ...

                                               

Monism

Monism attributes oneness or singleness to a concept e.g., existence. Various kinds of monism can be distinguished: Existence monism posits that, strictly speaking, there exists only a single thing, the Universe, which can only be artificially an ...

                                               

Monotheism

Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world. A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, a ...

                                               

Moral evil

Moral evil is any morally negative event caused by the intentional action or inaction of an agent, such as a person. An example of a moral evil might be murder, or any other evil event for which someone can be held responsible or culpable. This c ...

                                               

The Name of the Rose

The Name of the Rose is the 1980 debut novel by Italian author Umberto Eco. It is a historical murder mystery set in an Italian monastery in the year 1327; an intellectual mystery combining semiotics in fiction, biblical analysis, medieval studie ...

                                               

Natura naturans

Natura naturans is a Latin tag coined during the Middle Ages, meaning "Nature naturing", or more loosely, "nature doing what nature does". The Latin, naturans, is the present active participle of naturo, indicated by the suffix -ans which is akin ...

                                               

Natura naturata

Natura naturata is a Latin term coined in the Middle Ages, mainly used later by Baruch Spinoza meaning "Nature natured", or "Nature already created". The term adds the suffix for the Latin feminine past participle to the verb naturo, to create "n ...

                                               

Natural evil

Natural evil is evil for which "no non-divine agent can be held morally responsible for its occurrence." Others reject this definition; for example, Christian theologians argue that natural evil is the indirect result of original sin just as mora ...

                                               

Natural theology

Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature. This distinguishes it from revealed theology, which is based on scriptu ...

                                               

Naturalistic pantheism

Naturalistic pantheism, also known as scientific pantheism, is a form of pantheism. It has been used in various ways such as to relate God or divinity with concrete things, determinism, or the substance of the Universe. God, from these perspectiv ...

                                               

Erwin Neutzsky-Wulff

Erwin Neutzsky-Wulff is a Danish author and philosopher who has published within the genres of science fiction, science, horror, prose and non-fiction.

                                               

Nondualism

In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". Nondualism primarily refers to a mature state of consciousness, in which the dichotomy of I-other is "transcended", and awareness is descri ...

                                               

Nyayakusumanjali

Nyayakusumanjali is a treatise in Sanskrit composed by 10th century CE Indian logician and philosopher Udayana. The work has been described as codification of the Hindu proof for the existence of God. It has been noted that this treatise is the m ...

                                               

Omnibenevolence

Omnibenevolence is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence". Some philosophers have argued that it is impossible, or at least improbable, for a deity to exhibit such a property alongside omniscience and omni ...

                                               

Omnipotence

Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power. Monotheistic religions generally attribute omnipotence to only the deity of their faith. In the monotheistic philosophies of Abrahamic religions, omnipotence is often listed as one of a deitys ...

                                               

Perennial philosophy

The Perennial philosophy, also referred to as perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in spirituality that views all of the worlds religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exot ...

                                               

Persian Letters

Persian Letters is a literary work, published in 1721, by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of two fictional Persian noblemen, Usbek and Rica, who are traveling through France.

                                               

Possibilianism

Possibilianism is a philosophy which rejects both the diverse claims of traditional theism and the positions of certainty in strong atheism in favor of a middle, exploratory ground. The term was invented by Robbie Parrish, a friend of neuroscient ...

                                               

Post-theism

Post-theism is a variant of nontheism that proposes that the division of theism vs. atheism is obsolete, that God belongs to a stage of human development now past. Within nontheism, post-theism can be contrasted with antitheism. The term appears ...

                                               

Practical atheism

Practical atheism is the view that one should live their life with disregard towards a god. Practical atheism does not reject or accept claims about God. Practical atheism has been mistaken with apatheism and pragmatic atheism. Apatheism sees the ...

                                               

The Primordial Tradition

The Primordial Tradition is a school of religious philosophy which holds its origins in perennialism, or perennial philosophy, which is in turn a development of the prisca theologia of the Middle Ages. The Primordial Tradition seeks to establish ...

                                               

Principled Distance

Principled Distance is a new model of secularism given by Rajeev Bhargava. the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. He says that Indian secularism ...

                                               

Problem of evil in Hinduism

The standard problem of evil found in monotheistic religions does not apply to almost all traditions of Hinduism because it does not posit an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent creator. Scholars have proposed alternate forms of the problem of ...

                                               

Problem of Hell

The problem of Hell is an ethical problem in religion in which the existence of Hell for the punishment of souls is regarded as inconsistent with the notion of a just, moral, and omnibenevolent God. It derives from four key propositions: that Hel ...

                                               

Problem of the creator of God

The problem of the creator of God is the controversy regarding the hypothetical cause responsible for the existence of God, presuming God exists. It contests the proposition that the universe cannot exist without a creator by asserting that the c ...

                                               

Radical evil

Radical evil is a phrase used by German philosopher Immanuel Kant, one representing the Christian term, radix malorum. Kant believes that human beings naturally have a tendency to be evil. He explains radical evil as corruption in a human being t ...

                                               

The Religion of the Future

The Religion of the Future is a book by the philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira Unger. In the book, he argues that humanity is in need of a religious revolution that dispenses with the concept of God and elements of the supernatural, a ...

                                               

Religious alienation

Although the roots of alienation lie far back in the Judeo-Christian tradition, the concept of alienation first gained prominence in the philosophy of Hegel, and particularly in his mature writings. There are signs of the idea in his earlier work ...

                                               

Religious skepticism

Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion. Religious skeptics question religious authority and are not necessarily anti-religious but skeptical of specific or all religious beliefs and/or practices. Socrates was one of the ...

                                               

Russell's teapot

Russells teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell, to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others. Russell speci ...

                                               

Sacrifice of the intellect

The sacrifice of the intellect is a concept associated with Christian devotion - retraceble to Paul the Apostles Second Epistle to the Corinthians - and particularly with the Jesuit order. It was the "third sacrifice" demanded by the founder of t ...

                                               

Sacro-Egoism

Sacro-Egoism is a term defining a sociological approach in Western society wherein the ultimate authority regarding religious thought and interpretation rests with the individual. As theological thought evolved, specifically after the advent of l ...

                                               

Satipatthana

Satipatthāna is the establishment or arousing of mindfulness, as part of the Buddhist practices leading to detachment and liberation. Traditionally, mindfulness is thought to be applied to four domains, "constantly watching sensory experience in ...