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ⓘ Wrens Nest. The Wrens Nest is a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Dudley Metropolitan Borough, north west of the town centre of Dudley, in t ..




Wrens Nest
                                     

ⓘ Wrens Nest

The Wrens Nest is a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Dudley Metropolitan Borough, north west of the town centre of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. It is one of the most important geological locations in Britain. It is also a Local Nature Reserve, a national nature reserve and Scheduled Ancient Monument. The site is home to a number of species of birds and locally rare flora, such as Small Scabious, Milkwort and Quaking Grass. The caverns are also a nationally important hibernation site for seven different species of bat.

                                     

1.1. The Wrens Nest National Nature Reserve Ancient history

The Wrens Nest National Nature Reserve is world-famous geologically for its well-preserved Silurian coral reef fossils. Considered the most diverse and abundant fossil site in the British Isles, more than 700 types of fossil have been found at the site, 86 of which are unique to the location, including Calymene blumenbachii, a trilobite nicknamed the Dudley Bug or Dudley Locust by 18th century quarrymen. An image of this trilobite featured on the towns coat of arms until 1974.

The limestone outcrops belong to the Wenlock Group, which was formed some 420 to 425 million years ago from the material remnants of an ancient tropical sea bed, and contain ripple marks made from the seas action on the sand. Wrens Nest Hill was extensively quarried during the Industrial Revolution for building stone and lime production. The site was originally studied by the Scottish paleontologist Sir Roderick Murchison, whose work in defining the Silurian System was mainly based on fossils and rock formations found at the site.

                                     

1.2. The Wrens Nest National Nature Reserve Industrial Revolution

Abraham Darby I, who was one of the fathers of the Industrial Revolution, was born on Wrens Nest Hill in 1678.

The caves were mined for hundreds of years for the valuable limestone, used firstly for mortar and agriculture, and then principally iron production during the Industrial Revolution. The Victorians installed the worlds first industrial steam engine next to the Wrens Nest, which pumped water from mines and access tunnels.

During the height of the Industrial Revolution, up to 20.000 tons of limestone was quarried annually. Local industrialisation was considerable at this time, as the district had become highly industrialised in the heyday of the Black Countrys industrial past. When quarrying officially finished in 1925, the site was abandoned.

                                     

1.3. The Wrens Nest National Nature Reserve Recent history

Wrens Nest was declared a national nature reserve in 1956, the UKs first national nature reserve for geology.

In 2004, Wrens Nest and the nearby Castle Hill were declared Scheduled Ancient Monuments, as they represented the best surviving remains of the limestone industry in Dudley. The most impressive part of this is the last remaining surface opening limestone cavern in the world – formerly reaching more than 100 metres underground – which is known as the Seven Sisters. The workings were originally connected by underground canal to the Dudley Tunnel complex, which has now been blocked off for safety reasons.

The Wrens Nests geological value was first recognised by Sir Roderick Murchison in 1839, and now both the ex-quarry and the tunnels are visited by scientists from all over the world to study its valuable content.

                                     

2. The Seven Sisters tunnel complex

Considered one of the best surviving examples of limestone quarrying, the Seven Sisters caverns had to be filled in after a major roof collapse and mine cave-in occurred in 2001, to prevent further collapse. More recent work had also began on infilling the huge Cathedral Gallery with loose sand. The former limestone mine and adjacent vast underground canal basin, which leads to a now blocked off passage to Dudley Tunnel, contain some of what local historians claimed to be some of the worlds most important geology and mining heritage.

In 2007, Dudley Council lost out on a £50.000.000 national lottery grant to redevelop and re-open the cavern complex, but did later secure an £800.000 grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund for lesser improvements to the site.

                                     
  • front of the fireplace of the back room known as the Tap Room of The Wren s Nest Public House, Strawberry Beds, Chapelizod, Dublin 20, Ireland. Side One:
  • opened in August 1887 with the addition of a rectory two years later. The Wren s Nest mill ceased trading in 1955 and the remaining building is only a small
  • org guide Marsh Wren lifehistory All About Birds: Marsh Wren Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 2008 - 07 - 20. Metz, Karen J. The Enigma of Multiple Nest Building
  • form of a wren known as Jenny Wren in nursery rhymes. A wren s feather was thought to be a charm against disaster or drowning. The wren also features
  • Skephubble, Chapelmidway Bridge, Kilsallaghan, Newbarn, Fieldstown Bridge, Wren s Nest Cross, Oldtown, Wyanstown, Grallagh and Curragh West all in the county
  • following an argument with Wren while his daughter - in - law Nora and grandchildren only received a meagre allowance. When another of Wren s grandchildren, Susan
  • it nests in the tall grasses and sedges and feeds on insects. The sedge wren was formerly considered as conspecific with the non - migratory grass wren of
  • in tropical wet forest and adjacent tall second growth. Its neat roofed nest is constructed on the ground or occasionally very low in undergrowth, and
  • Mills became the largest spinning weaving combine in Glossop, and with Wren s Nest and Waterside Mills, Hadfield dominated the Derbyshire cotton industry

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