ⓘ List of laser applications. Many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications have been developed since the invention of the laser in 1958. T ..

List of laser applications

ⓘ List of laser applications

Many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications have been developed since the invention of the laser in 1958. The coherency, high monochromaticity, and ability to reach extremely high powers are all properties which allow for these specialized applications.


1. Scientific

In science, lasers are used in many ways, including:

  • Atmospheric remote sensing
  • Investigating nonlinear optics phenomena
  • Lasers have been used aboard spacecraft such as in the Cassini-Huygens mission.
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
  • Holographic techniques employing lasers also contribute to a number of measurement techniques.
  • In astronomy, lasers have been used to create artificial laser guide stars, used as reference objects for adaptive optics telescopes.
  • Laser based lidar LIght raDAR technology has application in geology, seismology, remote sensing and atmospheric physics.
  • A wide variety of interferometric techniques

Lasers may also be indirectly used in spectroscopy as a micro-sampling system, a technique termed Laser ablation LA, which is typically applied to ICP-MS apparatus resulting in the powerful LA-ICP-MS.

The principles of laser spectroscopy are discussed by Demtroder.


1.1. Scientific Heat treatment

Heat treating with lasers allows selective surface hardening against wear with little or no distortion of the component. Because this eliminates much part reworking that is currently done, the laser systems capital cost is recovered in a short time. An inert, absorbent coating for laser heat treatment has also been developed that eliminates the fumes generated by conventional paint coatings during the heat-treating process with CO2 laser beams.

One consideration crucial to the success of a heat treatment operation is control of the laser beam irradiance on the part surface. The optimal irradiance distribution is driven by the thermodynamics of the laser-material interaction and by the part geometry.

Typically, irradiances between 500-5000 W/cm^2 satisfy the thermodynamic constraints and allow the rapid surface heating and minimal total heat input required. For general heat treatment, a uniform square or rectangular beam is one of the best options. For some special applications or applications where the heat treatment is done on an edge or corner of the part, it may be better to have the irradiance decrease near the edge to prevent melting.


1.2. Scientific Weather

Research shows that scientists may one day be able to induce rain and lightning storms as well as micro-manipulating some other weather phenomena using high energy lasers. Such a breakthrough could potentially eradicate droughts, help alleviate weather related catastrophes, and allocate weather resources to areas in need.


1.3. Scientific Lunar laser ranging

When the Apollo astronauts visited the moon, they planted retroreflector arrays to make possible the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment. Laser beams are focused through large telescopes on Earth aimed toward the arrays, and the time taken for the beam to be reflected back to Earth measured to determine the distance between the Earth and Moon with high accuracy.


1.4. Scientific Photochemistry

Some laser systems, through the process of mode locking, can produce extremely brief pulses of light - as short as picoseconds or femtoseconds 10 −12 - 10 −15 seconds. Such pulses can be used to initiate and analyze chemical reactions, a technique known as photochemistry. The short pulses can be used to probe the process of the reaction at a very high temporal resolution, allowing the detection of short-lived intermediate molecules. This method is particularly useful in biochemistry, where it is used to analyse details of protein folding and function.


1.5. Scientific Laser scanner

Laser barcode scanners are ideal for applications that require high speed reading of linear codes or stacked symbols.


1.6. Scientific Laser cooling

A technique that has recent success is laser cooling. This involves atom trapping, a method where a number of atoms are confined in a specially shaped arrangement of electric and magnetic fields. Shining particular wavelengths of light at the ions or atoms slows them down, thus cooling them. As this process is continued, they all are slowed and have the same energy level, forming an unusual arrangement of matter known as a Bose–Einstein condensate.


1.7. Scientific Nuclear fusion

Some of the worlds most powerful and complex arrangements of multiple lasers and optical amplifiers are used to produce extremely high intensity pulses of light of extremely short duration, e.g. laboratory for laser energetics, National Ignition Facility, GEKKO XII, Nike laser, Laser Megajoule, HiPER. These pulses are arranged such that they impact pellets of tritium–deuterium simultaneously from all directions, hoping that the squeezing effect of the impacts will induce atomic fusion in the pellets. This technique, known as "inertial confinement fusion", so far has not been able to achieve "breakeven", that is, so far the fusion reaction generates less power than is used to power the lasers, but research continues.


1.8. Scientific Microscopy

Confocal laser scanning microscopy and Two-photon excitation microscopy make use of lasers to obtain blur-free images of thick specimens at various depths. Laser capture microdissection use lasers to procure specific cell populations from a tissue section under microscopic visualization.

Additional laser microscopy techniques include harmonic microscopy, four-wave mixing microscopy and interferometric microscopy.


2. Military

Military uses of lasers include applications such as target designation and ranging, defensive countermeasures, communications and directed energy weapons.

Directly as an energy weapon

A laser weapon is directed-energy weapon based on lasers.


Some weapons simply use a laser to disorient a person. One such weapon is the Thales Green Laser Optical Warner.


Laser guidance is a technique of guiding a missile or other projectile or vehicle to a target by means of a laser beam.


2.1. Military Directly as an energy weapon

A laser weapon is directed-energy weapon based on lasers.


2.2. Military Disorientation

Some weapons simply use a laser to disorient a person. One such weapon is the Thales Green Laser Optical Warner.


2.3. Military Guidance

Laser guidance is a technique of guiding a missile or other projectile or vehicle to a target by means of a laser beam.


2.4. Military Target designator

Another military use of lasers is as a laser target designator. This is a low-power laser pointer used to indicate a target for a precision-guided munition, typically launched from an aircraft. The guided munition adjusts its flight-path to home in to the laser light reflected by the target, enabling a great precision in aiming. The beam of the laser target designator is set to a pulse rate that matches that set on the guided munition to ensure munitions strike their designated targets and do not follow other laser beams which may be in use in the area. The laser designator can be shone onto the target by an aircraft or nearby infantry. Lasers used for this purpose are usually infrared lasers, so the enemy cannot easily detect the guiding laser light.


2.5. Military Laser sight

The laser has in most firearms applications been used as a tool to enhance the targeting of other weapon systems. For example, a laser sight is a small, usually visible-light laser placed on a handgun or a rifle and aligned to emit a beam parallel to the barrel. Since a laser beam has low divergence, the laser light appears as a small spot even at long distances; the user places the spot on the desired target and the barrel of the gun is aligned.

Most laser sights use a red laser diode. Others use an infrared diode to produce a dot invisible to the naked human eye but detectable with night vision devices. The firearms adaptive target acquisition module LLM01 laser light module combines visible and infrared laser diodes. In the late 1990s, green diode pumped solid state laser DPSS laser sights 532 nm became available. Modern laser sights are small and light enough for attachment to firearms.


2.6. Military Eye-targeted lasers

A non-lethal laser weapon was developed by the U.S. Air Force to temporarily impair an adversarys ability to fire a weapon or to otherwise threaten enemy forces. This unit illuminates an opponent with harmless low-power laser light and can have the effect of dazzling or disorienting the subject or causing them to flee. Several types of dazzlers are now available, and some have been used in combat.

There remains the possibility of using lasers to blind, since this requires such lower power levels, and is easily achievable in a man-portable unit. However, most nations regard the deliberate permanent blinding of the enemy as forbidden by the rules of war see Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons. Although several nations have developed blinding laser weapons, such as Chinas ZM-87, none of these are believed to have made it past the prototype stage.

In addition to the applications that cross over with military applications, a widely known law enforcement use of lasers is for lidar to measure the speed of vehicles.


2.7. Military Holographic weapon sight

A holographic weapon sight uses a laser diode to illuminate a hologram of a reticle built into a flat glass optical window of the sight. The user looks through the optical window and sees a cross hair reticle image superimposed at a distance on the field of view.


3. Medical

  • Cosmetic surgery: see laser hair removal. Laser types used in dermatology include ruby 694 nm, alexandrite 755 nm, pulsed diode array 810 nm, Nd:YAG 1064 nm, Ho:YAG 2090 nm, and Er:YAG 2940 nm.
  • Intelligent laser speckle classification for skin health assessments especially regarding damage caused through ageing
  • Eye surgery and refractive surgery
  • Laser scalpel
  • "No-Touch" removal of tumors, especially of the brain and spinal cord.
  • In dentistry for caries removal, endodontic/periodontic procedures, tooth whitening, and oral surgery
  • Burn and surgical scar management: scar contracture CO2 especially the newer fractionated CO2 lasers, redness and itch Pulsed Dye laser - PDL, post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation Q-switched lasers:Ruby, Alexandrite, burn scar unwanted hair growth and trapped hairs Ruby, IPL and numerous hair removal lasers
  • Cancer treatment
  • Photobiomodulation i.e. laser therapy
  • Soft tissue surgery: CO 2, Er:YAG laser


4. Industrial and commercial

Industrial laser applications can be divided into two categories depending on the power of the laser: material processing and micro-material processing.

In material processing, lasers with average optical power above 1 kilowatt are used mainly for industrial materials processing applications. Beyond this power threshold there are thermal issues related to the optics that separate these lasers from their lower-power counterparts. Laser systems in the 50-300W range are used primarily for pumping, plastic welding and soldering applications. Lasers above 300W are used in brazing, thin metal welding, and sheet metal cutting applications. The required brightness as measured in by the beam parameter product is higher for cutting applications than for brazing and thin metal welding. High power applications, such as hardening, cladding, and deep penetrating welding, require multiple kW of optical power, and are used in a broad range of industrial processes.

Micro material processing is a category that includes all laser material processing applications under 1 kilowatt. The use of lasers in Micro Materials Processing has found broad application in the development and manufacturing of screens for smartphones, tablet computers, and LED TVs.

A detailed list of industrial and commercial laser applications includes:

  • Laser marking
  • Plastic welding
  • Laser pointers
  • Guidance systems e.g., ring laser gyroscopes
  • Barcode readers
  • Lidar / pollution monitoring,
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Laser drilling
  • Holography
  • Laser peening
  • Power beaming, which is a possible solution to transfer energy to the climber of a Space elevator
  • To store and retrieve data in optical discs, such as CDs and DVDs
  • Optical tweezers
  • Laser accelerometers
  • Laser alignment
  • Laser line levels are used in surveying and construction. Lasers are also used for guidance for aircraft.
  • 3D laser scanners for accurate 3D measurement
  • Laser cleaning
  • Diode lasers are used as a lightswitch in industry, with a laser beam and a receiver which will switch on or off when the beam is interrupted, and because a laser can keep the light intensity over larger distances than a normal light, and is more precise than a normal light it can be used for product detection in automated production.
  • Optical communications over optical fiber or in free space
  • Bubblegrams
  • Writing subtitles onto motion picture films.
  • Laser welding
  • Laser cutting
  • Digital minilabs
  • Laser mice
  • OLED display manufacturing
  • Laser rangefinder / surveying,
  • Metrology - handheld and robotic laser systems for Aerospace, Automotive and Rail applications
  • Laser bonding of additive marking materials for decoration and identification,
  • Extensively in both consumer and industrial imaging equipment.
  • Laser cladding, a surface engineering process applied to mechanical components for reconditioning, repair work or hardfacing
  • Photolithography
  • In laser printers: gas and diode lasers play a key role in manufacturing high resolution printing plates and in image scanning equipment.
  • Blu-ray
  • Laser engraving of printing plate


4.1. Industrial and commercial Entertainment and recreation

  • Laser harp: a musical instrument were the strings are replaced with laser beams
  • Laser lighting displays accompany many music concerts
  • Laser tag
  • As a light source for digital cinema projectors

4.2. Industrial and commercial Surveying and ranging

In surveying and construction, the laser level is affixed to a tripod, leveled and then spun to illuminate a horizontal plane. The laser beam projector employs a rotating head with a mirror for sweeping the laser beam about a vertical axis. If the mirror is not self-leveling, it is provided with visually readable level vials and manually adjustable screws for orienting the projector. A staff carried by the operator is equipped with a movable sensor, which can detect the laser beam and gives a signal when the sensor is in line with the beam usually an audible beep. The position of the sensor on the graduated staff allows comparison of elevations between different points on the terrain.

A tower-mounted laser level is used in combination with a sensor on a wheel tractor-scraper in the process of land laser leveling to bring land for example, an agricultural field to near-flatness with a slight grade for drainage. The laser line level was invented in 1996 by Steve J. Orosz, Jr. This type of level does not require a heavy motor to create the illusion of a line from a dot, rather, it uses a lens to transform the dot into a line.


4.3. Industrial and commercial Bird deterrent

Laser beams are used to disperse birds from agricultural land, industrial sites, rooftops and from airport runways. Birds tend to perceive the laser beam as a physical stick. By moving the laser beam towards the birds, they get scared and fly away. On the market are manual operated laser torches or automated robots to move the laser beam automatically.

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