# ⓘ Inductive reasoning ..

## Intuitive statistics

Intuitive statistics, or folk statistics, refers to the cognitive phenomenon where organisms use data to make generalizations and predictions about the world. This can be a small amount of sample data or training instances, which in turn contribute to inductive inferences about either population-level properties, future data, or both. Inferences can involve revising hypotheses, or beliefs, in light of probabilistic data that inform and motivate future predictions. The informal tendency for cognitive animals to intuitively generate statistical inferences, when formalized with certain axioms ...

## Action model learning

Action model learning is an area of machine learning concerned with creation and modification of software agents knowledge about effects and preconditions of the actions that can be executed within its environment. This knowledge is usually represented in logic-based action description language and used as the input for automated planners. Learning action models is important when goals change. When an agent acted for a while, it can use its accumulated knowledge about actions in the domain to make better decisions. Thus, learning action models differs from reinforcement learning. It enable ...

## Argument from analogy

Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is one of the most common methods by which human beings attempt to understand the world and make decisions. When a person has a bad experience with a product and decides not to buy anything further from the producer, this is often a case of analogical reasoning. It is also implicit in much of science; for instance, experiments on laboratory rats typically proceed on the basis that some physiologi ...

## Backward induction

Backward induction is the process of reasoning backwards in time, from the end of a problem or situation, to determine a sequence of optimal actions. It proceeds by first considering the last time a decision might be made and choosing what to do in any situation at that time. Using this information, one can then determine what to do at the second-to-last time of decision. This process continues backwards until one has determined the best action for every possible situation at every point in time. It was first used by Zermelo in 1913, to prove that chess has pure optimal strategies. In the ...

## Case-based reasoning

Case-based reasoning, broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. An auto mechanic who fixes an engine by recalling another car that exhibited similar symptoms is using case-based reasoning. A lawyer who advocates a particular outcome in a trial based on legal precedents or a judge who creates case law is using case-based reasoning. So, too, an engineer copying working elements of nature, is treating nature as a database of solutions to problems. Case-based reasoning is a prominent type of analogy solution making. It has been a ...

## Causal inference

Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect. The main difference between causal inference and inference of association is that the former analyzes the response of the effect variable when the cause is changed. The science of why things occur is called etiology. Causal inference is an example of causal reasoning.

## ⓘ Inductive reasoning

• Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion this is in contrast
• Inductive reasoning aptitude also called differentiation or inductive learning ability measures how well a person can identify a pattern within a large
• Deductive reasoning top - down logic contrasts with inductive reasoning bottom - up logic in the following way in deductive reasoning a conclusion
• Although reasoning systems widely support deductive inference, some systems employ abductive, inductive defeasible and other types of reasoning Heuristics
• philosophical logic are commonly associated with this type of reasoning Inductive reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. It hypothesizes
• use inductive reasoning to create theories and hypotheses. In opposition, deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning In this reasoning process
• included in ACE ProGolem Commonsense reasoning Formal concept analysis Inductive reasoning Inductive programming Inductive probability Statistical relational
• is no guarantee that the generalization is correct. However, all inductive reasoning where data is too scarce for statistical relevance is inherently
• Induction may refer to: Inductive reasoning in logic, inferences from particular cases to the general case Labor induction birth pregnancy Induction
• argument. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning forms associated with the strict sense deductive reasoning inductive reasoning abductive
• Inductive programming IP is a special area of automatic programming, covering research from artificial intelligence and programming, which addresses
• The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense

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