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ⓘ Philosophical theories ..



                                               

Philosophical theory

A philosophical theory or philosophical position is a set of beliefs that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy. The use of the term theory here is a statement of colloquial English and not reflective of the term theory. While any sort of thesis or opinion may be termed a position, in analytic philosophy it is thought best to reserve the word "theory" for systematic, comprehensive attempts to solve problems.

                                               

Abstract object theory

Abstract object theory is a branch of metaphysics regarding abstract objects. Originally devised by metaphysician Edward Zalta in 1999, the theory was an expansion of mathematical Platonism. Abstract Objects: An Introduction to Axiomatic Metaphysics 1983 is the title of a publication by Edward Zalta that outlines abstract object theory. On Zaltas account, there are two modes of predication: some objects the ordinary concrete ones around us, like tables and chairs "exemplify" properties, while others merely "encode" them. While the objects that exemplify properties are discovered through tr ...

                                               

Agathism

Agathism, from the Greek ἀγαθός agathos is, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "The doctrine that all things tend towards ultimate good, as distinguished from optimism, which holds that all things are now for the best". An agathist accepts that evil and misfortune will ultimately happen, but that the eventual outcome leads towards the good. In other words, an agathist may see the world as essentially good but a place in which bad things can and do happen to good people.

                                               

Animalism (philosophy)

In the philosophical sub-discipline of ontology, animalism is a theory of Personal Identity according to which human persons are animals. The concept of animalism is advocated by philosophers Eric T. Olson, Paul Snowdon, Stephan Blatti, and David Wiggins. The view stands in contrast to positions such as Lockes psychological criterion for personal identity or various forms of Mind-body dualism, such as Richard Swinburnes account. Whilst the animalist is committed to something like the claim that human persons are essentially animals, the animalist is quite content to allow non-human persons ...

                                               

Anthropocentrism

Anthropocentrism is the belief that human beings are the most important entity in the universe. Anthropocentrism interprets or regards the world in terms of human values and experiences. The term can be used interchangeably with humanocentrism, and some refer to the concept as human supremacy or human exceptionalism. Anthropocentrism is considered to be profoundly embedded in many modern human cultures and conscious acts. It is a major concept in the field of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy, where it is often considered to be the root cause of problems created by human ac ...

                                               

Armchair theorizing

Armchair theorizing, armchair philosophizing, or armchair scholarship is an approach to providing new developments in a field that does not involve the collection of new information but, rather, a careful analysis or synthesis of existent scholarship, especially frivolously or superficially so.

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