★ BMW i3
BMW i3 is a B-class, high-roof hatchback manufactured and marketed by BMW with electric powertrain using the drive to the rear wheels via a single-speed transmission and a floor lithium-ion battery and additional extend the range of a gasoline engine. The i3 was BMWs first production car with zero emissions and was released as part of the BMW electric car BMW I sub-brand.
Style Richard Kim, the i3 does not use the single five-door configuration with a body kit consisting of passenger modules of a high-strength, ultra-lightweight CFRP carbon fibre reinforced plastic glued to the bottom of the aluminum holding the chassis, battery, drive system and transmission. The body has two small rear-hinged clamshell rear doors. The i3 made its debut as a concept at the international motor show 2011 in Germany, and production began in July 2013 in Leipzig, Germany.
The i3 takes the third place among all the electric vehicles sold worldwide from 2014 to 2016. Global sales since its inception amounted to more than 133.000 units until the end of 2018. USA is the best seller in the market with more than 37.000 units sold by 2018.
BMW i3 won two world car of the year awards, selected as the most environmentally friendly car of the year 2014, as well as the world car design of 2014. The i3 has received the if product design gold award, and won the UK car of the Year 2014 and Best car of 2014 in the first UK Car of the year awards.
It is reported that BMW has no plan for U3 successor, as the company plans the electrification of more models.
1. History. (История)
In February 2011, BMW debuted its sub-brand, BMW I, to market the vehicles produced under project I. BMW I cars were to be sold separately from BMW or Mini. The first two production models-the all-electric BMW i3 processor, formerly known under the name of Mega city vehicles MCV and hybrid car called the BMW i8 say that the production version of the concept of efficient dynamics concept unveiled in 2009 at the international motor show in Germany and has all the electric range of 50 km 31 Mi. Production of plug-in electric cars was to begin in Leipzig in 2013.
The concept car i3 and was presented at the international motor show 2011 in Germany. BMW showed a prototype BMW i3 during the summer Olympic games 2012 in London and the production version was presented in July 2013.
BMW unveiled the i3 concept studies and coupe at the auto show in Los Angeles 2012. The carmaker developed the concept car to demonstrate the potential for expansion of the model range. Three-door hatchback coupe, like the five-door i3 electric hatchback and sedan, is driven by an electric motor developed by the BMW group, with a maximum output of 125 kW 168 HP and maximum torque of 250 N m 184 lb-ft. The supply of power to the rear wheels is via a single-speed transmission. Lithium-ion battery placed under the floor and can deliver electricity, 160 km 99 mi, but the petrol engine is called "Rex", can be added to expand the car range of up to 320 km 200 mi.
2. Design and technology. (Дизайн и технологии)
The i3 was the first mass produced car with most of its internal structure and body made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic CFRP. BMW took advantage of the absence of a front internal combustion engine, giving the I3 a "clean-sheet design" with sport appearance. The i3 and the door panels made of hemp, which is mixed with plastic reduces the weight of each panel by about 10%. Hemp fibers are left open, are also a design element in the interior of the car and promote sustainability. Further, environmental awareness is reflected in the additional seat leather, which is tanned with olive leaf extract and trim the instrument panel, which is made of environmentally refined wood from certified cultivation in Europe. By November 2010, BMW showed passenger compartments light weight, and chief Executive the automaker said that they have already decided on the basic design of the car and road testing prototypes began soon after.
The i3 includes four doors and Seating for four passengers with rear suicide doors. The i3 uses a newly developed powertrain consisting of 130 kW 170 HP electric motor on lithium-ion batteries and driving the rear axle. BMW, aimed at a range of 160 kilometers, 100 miles, in the same range that was expected for the BMW ActiveE, but in order to reduce weight with a battery capacity of 16 kWh instead of the ActiveEs 30 kW.
BMW i3 has two pedals like all cars with automatic transmission. The accelerator pedal acts as both accelerator and engine brake. When the driver releases the pedal, the vehicle regenerates the kinetic energy of the cars transmission to charge the battery. This has the effect of slowing a car down. During field testing the mini E, which has an accelerator that recharges the battery that way, and consists of brakes that only apply to the rear wheels, BMW has become known that drivers tend to rely on the engine brake: around 75% of all deceleration maneuvers are initiated without the brake pedal when driving in city areas. BMW also expect the i3 to use the same type of battery and powertrain that is verified in the testing of the BMW ActiveE.
The prototype presented in 2011 at the international motor show in Germany 22 79 MJ kWh lithium-ion battery, which is expected to deliver between 130 to 160 km 80 to 100 miles and the battery was fully charged in about four hours with a 240-volt charger. The i3 is expected to go from 0 to 100 km / h from 0 to 62 mph in less than 8 seconds. The BMW i3 has a 130 kW 170 HP Motor is mounted on the rear axle to drive the rear wheels and the maximum speed is limited to 150 km / h 93 mph.
BMW designed the i3 e-drive powertrain is based on the assumption that the battery needs recharge once in two or three days. Charging frequency was derived from results of field trials of the BMW ActiveE and MINI E vehicles in Asia, Europe and the United States, in accordance with which typical commuting use between the pilot users homes and workplaces was calculated.
In June 2012 an updated version of the concept car BMW i3 was presented at the opening of the first BMW I store, located on Park lane in London, United Kingdom. The updated i3 concept and consists of a new interior color and design. Seat covers combine on the basis of high quality wool and leather tanned with olive leaf oil agents. The almost symmetrical curving dash is inlaid with treated eucalyptus wood, which in accordance with BMW comes from sustainably managed forests in Europe.
Information is provided to the driver through a 16.5 cm 6.5 in standalone devices and 22.3 cm 8.8 in the Central information display. The bench-derived front seats to replace the center console that divided the cabin and outdoor transmission, brake levers and center console are also absent.
2.1. Design and technology. Charging and connecting. (Зарядки и подключения)
The i3 allows the owner to charge the battery from an ordinary wall outlet. The BMW i3 has a number of charging functions. With the original 60Ah battery, AC fast charging can take less than 3 hours using a BMW I Wallbox Pure or a 3rd party EVSE charging equipment for maintenance and 32A, when charging from 0 to 80%. The i3, as well as the fast charging option suitable for public charging stations, DC, and can take less than 30 minutes to charge version battery 60Ah from 0% to 80%. Later 94Ah and models 120ач to take proportionally more. In the US, it can also be charged from any public charging station with a SAE J1772 connector. In 2016, BMW and PG& utility in California extended experiment on delayed payment-during peak loads and compensate for I3 owners for the delay.
BMW claims that the i3 is the first fully online all-electric vehicle, but Tesla model S, had full connectivity to the 3G Internet with 2012.
2.2. Design and technology. Modes of operation. (Режимы работы)
BMW i3 allows the driver to select the car energy consumption through three different drive modes: comfort, Eco Pro or ECO PRO mode. In the standard Comfort mode the i3 delivers a range between 130 to 160 km 80 to 100 miles in everyday driving conditions, while the i3 Rex delivers from 260 to 290 km 160 to 180 Mi. ECO PRO mode increases the driving range by about 12% on another display of the accelerator pedal, which uses less energy. In eco-Pro mode, all parameters aimed at achieving the highest possible range, an increase in training for approximately 24% compared with comfort mode. In this mode, the maximum speed of the BMW i3 is not limited to 90 km / h 56 miles / HR and electrical devices such as heating and air conditioning are switched to energy saving mode. In i3s was successfully introduced for the 2018 model year, adds a sport mode drive.
2.3. Design and technology. Option range extender. (Вариант расширитель диапазона)
Additional diesel / petrol engine range extender is positioned as Rex and eats the same reason Kymco and 647 CC inline two-cylinder engine used in the BMW C650 GT Maxi-scooters. The system is designed as an emergency backup, to extend the range to the next location charging and not for long trips. 647-CC engine as fitted in the i3 Rex reduced compared to engine of the same displacement in the C650 GT and Rex engine develops 34 BHP, 25 kW 34 HP and 41 lb⋅ft, 5.6 kg⋅m 55 N⋅m at 4.300 rpm, ensuring compliance with Euro 6 emissions standards compared to 59 HP 60 HP 44 kW at 7.500 rpm and 49 lb⋅ft 6.7 kg⋅m 66 N * m at 6.000 rpm for the engine in the C650 gt, which corresponds to the less restrictive Euro 4 emissions.
The Rex engine is running, when the battery capacity drops to a predetermined level, generating electricity to extend the range to about 320 km 200 mi for the European version.
European models have a 9 liters fuel tank while the American model, although the same tank software-limited to a capacity of 7.2 liters. At the age of five-cycle EPA tests the i3 REX has a total volume of 240 km 150 Mi.
Official vehicles range from 130 to 160 km 80 to 100 mph in 60 option battery Ah in the new European driving cycle NEDC and up to 200 km 120 miles in its most efficient driving mode. U.S. Agency for environmental protection EPA cycle the official range is 130 km 81 mi with a combined fuel economy of 124 miles per equivalent gallon of gasoline - MPGe - 1.90 l / 100 km, 149 mpg IMP.
In July 2016, BMW has released the 2017 model year my BMW i3 in 94 Ah with improved 33 kWh Battery with 50% more power than previous models, which leads to an increase in its range of up to 183 km 114 mi in the environmental cycle, and 300 km 190 mi under NEDC test. The range extender Rex version also has more battery capacity, as with all electric models, with a corresponding increase in electric ranges of up to 156 kilometres 97 mi under EPA testing cycle, for a total range of 290 km 180 Mi.
2.4. Design and technology. Classification Of California. (Классификация Калифорния)
Parameter range-extender BMW i3 was designed to meet the California air resources Board carb regulation for auxiliary power unit APU called Rex. According to the rules adopted in March 2012 by carb, the 2014 BMW i3 with fully-equipped Rex is the first car ever to qualify as a range-extended battery-electric vehicle or "BEVx". Carb describes this type of electric vehicle as "a relatively high electric battery-electric vehicle Bev, to which was added APU." Device that provides battery charging about 30% after the pack has been depleted in normal operation, is strictly limited in the additional range it can provide, and provides a minimum of 75 mi 121 km on electric.
The carburetor group i3 with Rex as a "transitional vehicle with zero emissions" TZEV, the same classification as other hybrids such as the Chevrolet Volt and Toyota Plug-in hybrid cars Prius. This classification is done with the i3 Rex eligible for Californias green sticker that identificeret vehicle is allowed to operate per passenger in California occupancy vehicle lanes HOV, or carpool or diamond lanes, but not for the white sticker reserved for pure electric cars such as the BMW i3 without Rex. In addition, the certification of the carb on the i3 Rex as BEVx allows the i3 with range extender to be eligible for the USA of$2.500 Clean car discount, the same amount eligible pure electric cars are entitled to. Other hybrids have the right to only us discounts on the purchase of 1.500$.
Configuration I3 us imposes restrictions of the software on a machine that has not spread to other areas. It put forward the claim of the owners in 2016.
2.5. Design and technology. Fuel economy and range. (Экономия топлива и диапазон)
In the new European driving cycle NEDC, the range of the model battery 60Ah is 190 km 120 mi. BMW estimates the energy consumption 0.21 kWh / km in everyday driving. Model with range extender has an official NEDC in General, range from 257 to 299 km 160 to 186 miles. In 2016, the range of the model 94Ah to 300 km 190 Mi.
Under its five-cycle testing, the United States Agency for environmental protection EPA rating for the 2014 through 2016 model year all-electric BMW i3 and 60 A h energy consumption 27 kWh / 100 km 16.9 kWh / 100 km, combined fuel economy at 124 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent – MPGe – 1.90 l / 100 km, 149 mpg IMP WITH a fully electric range of 130 km 81 Mi. With these assessments the all-electric BMW i3 was the most economical of the certified vehicles sold in the United States of all years regardless of fuel type to November 2016, when it was surpassed by the Hyundai Ioniq, electric, with a capacity of 136 MPGe 25 kWh / 100 miles. The range-extended model has lower ratings than the all-electric i3 due to the extra weight two-cylinder petrol engine used in the i3 Rex. However, in 2014 i3 Rex replaced the Chevrolet Volt as the most effective of the certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine.
BMW I3 with 94 A h Battery has a range of 114 Mi 183 km, an increase of 33 Mi 53 km 60 Ah option. The i3 94 A h combined fuel economy rating of is 118 mpg-e, compared with 124 mpg-e for a model with 60 A h Battery. In 2017, the BMW i3 Rex with big 94 A h Battery has an EPA-rated range 97 mi 156 km and a combined fuel economy rating of 111 mpg-e. the Range of use of the petrol engine increased to 83 Mi 134 km from 78 126 km in previous versions. The rating of the battery was increased in 2018 120 A-h, which leads to a total capacity of 42.2 kW. In 2019 BMW i3 Rex from 120 A h Battery has an EPA-rated battery range of only 126 Mi 203 km, combined gas and electric stove 200 miles 320 km and miles and combined fuel economy rating of 100 mpg-e.
The following are the EPA ratings for the all-electric and range-extended models.
2.6. Design and technology. Security. (Безопасности)
European new car assessment Euro NCAP rated I3s four-star safety rating cars, a result of the following assessments for each criterion:
The BMW i3s successful overall ratings lower than the other six best-selling plug-in electric vehicles, Volvo V60 Plug-in hybrid, Renault Zoe, Nissan leaf, Mitsubishi Outlander s-HEV, Chevy Volt and Opel Ampera, all of which have a rating of five stars.
2.7. Design and technology. Extra mobility. (Дополнительную мобильность)
BMW I presented the BMW I flexible mobility program for trips where series from BMW i3 would not be enough to allow customers to cover longer distances, such as providing a conventional BMW for a given number of days in a year. The program was launched in October 2014 in the United States and individual dealers can choose whether to participate in this program. BMW also offers a program of assistance on roads in areas with a high level of sales. Of the vehicle assist will provide a charge so the i3 can travel to the next charging station. In addition, the group U3 digital display shows the location of the nearest petrol stations to alleviate range anxiety.
2.8. Design and technology. 2017 model. (2017 модель)
In may of 2016 BMW announced that the 2017 model year my BMW i3 will have a 33 kWh battery of 22 kWh in the previous model, allows to increase the range. Battery capacity has been increased by more than 50% without changing the outer dimensions. BMW and Samsung SDI optimized cell-internal packages with the electrolyte and adapted active material, which leads to increased energy density of lithium-ion batteries, which increased the battery capacity up to 94 A h and overall battery energy to 33 kW / h of which 27.2 kW can be effectively used. Previous battery capacity 60 Ah and produced 22 kW gross with a Net capacity of 19 kW. Improved battery has updated electronics package, new maps software for the cooling system of the battery and electric motor. In 94 Ah Battery suitable for all-electric i3 and i3 with range extender.
The range extender Rex version has the same battery as all electric models. In 2017, the model offers an optional REX range on the American market thanks to a fuel tank that is 25% more than the previous model with a capacity of 2.4 Gal 9.1 l, 2.0 IMP Gal. Its actually the same tank i3 has always been manufactured and used outside the United States, but the BMW was blocked by the tanks the last half-litre capacity in the U.S. market to meet California Zev requirements for vehicles with range extender, since this car more gasoline than all-electric range, which will affect its status as a vehicle with zero emissions Zev in California. Starting with the 2017 model year provides increased all-electric range, which now exceeds gas-powered series, BMW was able to fully open the tank, without prejudice to his status as a Zev.
In 2017 model year, the I3 was released in the United States and Europe in July 2016. According to BMW, as of August 10, 2016, orders for large battery i3 does not exceed 7.000 units, with a total area of 2.358 successfully i3s delivered worldwide in July 2016, increased by 33.7% year-on-year. Sales also grew in the USA 1.479 units sold in July 2016, up 58.2% from July 2015, and 143.3% from June 2016. Both the improved battery was scheduled to be available in the UK, Germany and France starting in July 2016. Owners of previous models i3 and in certain markets have the ability to modify your vehicle with an improved battery. BMW plans to use a used battery 22 kWh in the production of stationary energy storage devices. Retrofittable battery is not available in the US
2.9. Design and technology. Model 2018 and i3s successfully. (Модель 2018 и i3s успешно успешно)
In 2017, BMW announced the addition of i3s successfully for its smartphones, starting with model year 2018. In i3s successfully with low sport suspension, wider wheels and tires, rapid acceleration, and sports mode drive. In i3s successfully as the i3, is offered with an optional range extender.
2.10. Design and technology. Model 2019. (Модель 2019)
In September 2018, BMW announced a major 42.2 kW 120 Ah for U3. Minor changes in i3 and includes new color options and adaptive headlights. According to preliminary data, the model is Rex will not go on sale in the UK nor in Sweden.
3. Production. (Производство)
BMW has implemented effective production processes and uses recycled materials to reduce environmental impact i3s successfully.
BMW is manufacturing carbon strands that form the basis of carbon fiber reinforced plastic i34s body to a new plant built in Moses lake, Washington is $ 100 million, using the raw material comes from Japan. This location was chosen to take advantage of abundant hydropower available in the region of the United States, because the production of carbon fiber requires significant energy and otherwise emit a lot of carbon dioxide. Carbon fiber is then sent to Landshut, Germany, where the CFRP parts manufacturing and conveyor car is located in Leipzig.
In November 2010 in Leipzig, the opening of the plant, with an investment volume totaling €400 million Euro 561 million U.S. dollars before the end of 2013. The plant is located at BMWs complex that already produces a variant of the 1 series. Was presented in March at the Geneva motor show 2013 a concept version of the BMW i3 coupe reflecting the current state of continuous development. The model has been officially presented simultaneously in new York, London and Beijing on 29 July 2013. Serial production for retail customers began on 18 September 2013, and the First car off the Assembly line was handed over to German marathon runner Jan Fitschen. The car was used as the lead vehicle at the Berlin marathon 2013 on September 29.
As of February 2014, BMW was producing an average of 70 cars a day, about half the planned production, with reduced production in connection with high level of defects in the carbon parts. In follow-up investment of about 100 million euros in the production of carbon parts has been made to solve the problems of supply. According to BMW, there were 11.000 orders, including over 1.200 from U.S. customers. As a result of high demand and low production rates, the waiting time for delivery is extended until September 2014.
4. Marketing and sales. (Маркетинга и продаж)
Production began in September 2013, and the first I3 shipping to retail customers in Europe took place at an official ceremony of entering the market, held in Munich on 15 November 2013. The first delivery to a retail buyer in the U.S. took place in may 2014. After its release on the market, pricing in the U.S. began in the United States 42.275 before any government incentives, and the possibility of a range extender is an additional $ 3.850. Prices in Germany began with €34.950 RUB 46.400. UK prices started at pounds 30.680 US $ 47.195 to the corresponding government subsidies.
In may 2016, the BMW i3 was available in 50 countries. Upon its release, the BMW, like many other plug-in electric car manufacturers, faced with weak reception to its line of electric cars. BMW plans to sell at least 30.000 units in 2014. Global sales passed 10.000 units in September 2014, 25.000 units in may 2015, and the 50.000 unit milestone was received in July 2016. As of December 2016, with more than 65.000 units sold since its creation, and 3 place in the world third best selling electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf and Tesla Model S. the I3 is the third place on sales volume among all the electric vehicles sold worldwide for three consecutive years from 2014 to 2016. As of December 2016, I3 is the worlds seventh top connector-selling electric car in history.
Were registered in 2013 in Europe a total of 1.477, 16.052 units were sold worldwide in 2014, and global sales amounted to 24.057 units in 2015. Was set worldwide in 2016 to 6% in 2015, and 31.482 in 2017 of about 25.500 units. In October 2017, BMW announced that the 100.000 th car BMW i3 was not built. Global sales totaled 34.829 units, grew by 10.6% from 2017 and the total sales from the beginning made 133.397 units until the end of December 2018.
As of December 2017, the U.S. listed as U3 top selling country market with 31.017 units since its creation, followed by Norway with 13.483 new registered units, and Germany with 12.245 units.
The Norwegian market has the worlds highest penetration rate of I3 per capita. In November 2016, the BMW i3 topped sales of new passenger cars in Norway. As of November 2016, Norway is listed as the second largest market for the BMW i3, which is more than 13% of the total production of the i3 and since inception. The i3 was the best selling electric car in Germany, as it was launched in November 2013 and November 2015, and at that time, ranked as the third best-selling all-electric car in the United States.
4.1. Marketing and sales. Global sales. (Глобальные продажи)
The following table shows annual retail sales and registration and 3 top selling national markets by the end of December 2018 for both the BMW i3 and, except where noted.
BMW i3 has won the Geneva motor show the car design of the year "in the nomination" For 2013 in the manufacturing category, if product design gold award for "enabling sustainability in all aspects of interior and windshield design". World Green car 2014, the 2014 world car design of the year., Car of the Year 2014, UK best super-mini and green car journals 2014 2015 Green car of the year award.
In Australia, the BMW i3 and got the wheels of the car of 2014 by the magazine Wheels. In South Africa, the i3 received the "design of the year" and "Game of the year" in 2016, the automotive website cars.Ko.z.
In 2017 the auto show in new York in 94 Ah i3 was named the first winner of the "world car of the year".
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