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ⓘ Vyshnivets Palace. The Vyshnivets Palace or the Wisniowiecki Palace is located in the urban-type settlement of Vyshnivets in Ternopil Oblast of western Ukraine. ..




Vyshnivets Palace
                                     

ⓘ Vyshnivets Palace

The Vyshnivets Palace or the Wisniowiecki Palace is located in the urban-type settlement of Vyshnivets in Ternopil Oblast of western Ukraine. Historically, it was the main seat of the Wisniowiecki princely family which takes its name from this castle.

                                     

1. History

In 1395 landlord Dmitry Koribut having been removed from power in Novgorod-Siversky attained instead great dominion of Volyn lands, where under his leadership fortress construction began. This is how on the banks of Horin River in the town of Vyshnivets, Old Vyshnivets today, first castle came about.

Upon Dmitry Koributs death due to absence a successor of male gender, castle of Vyshnivets all together with the estate passes through Olgerdovich-Nesvitsky sidelong lineage of three generations till Michal Zbaraski Wisniowiecki gaining power 1517.

Following immediate raid of Turk-Tatar forces in 1491 razed the fort post in the town of Stary Vishnivets and settlement that had been secured by it. In a result the same year landlord Michal Zbaraski, having taken a different name of Wisniowiecki, broke the ground for another fort-post up the stream on the crest of round hill, and new fastness destined to be a bulwark and vindicator for new generations from Tatar-Turkish inroads for centuries to come.

Latest architectural view as a defense fortification the stronghold took having been completely reconstructed in 1640s, when Jeremi Wisniowiecki supervised the work. The features of defensive bastion system was taken upon at that time, although it hadnt done much saving the castle from Cossaks capturing during uprising of 1648 and being sacked by Tatars a year later following signing of Treaty of Zboriv.

Despite the use of the most advanced martial fortification technique, Vyishnivets surrendered to enemy inroads: formerly in 1655 to the swords of Tatar, then more recently twenty years later in 1675 during the Second Polish-Ottoman War to Turks turning into a ruin. In the course of the tumultuous 17th century, the town and the castle stood destroyed as the king of Poland, John III Sobieski, relieved the city from its taxation burden for twenty years.

Michal Serwacy Wisniowiecki 1680–1744, last descendant of Wisniowiecki family by fathers line, a wealthy Polish nobleman, broached revival of patrimonial estate. He raised not a castle, but a magnificent accomplished palace atop of extinguished cinders completing it in 1720. Nonetheless it did retain a role of combat structure. Garrison was dislocated there until 1760. Somewhat later on appeared indefeasible attributes of magnate wealth of a castle church and grand park.

The death of last male member of Wisniowiecki family caused palace and estate in the city of Vyshnivets ownership being transferred by female line to Mniszech family under their care and supervision of whom castle had revealed all of its beauty adding another facet to the palettes of European palace and park recreation art.

For three generations Mniszechs owners Jan Karol 1716–1759, Michal Jerzy 1748–1806, and Karol Filip 1794–1846) rendered the estate true royal charm: painting collection of Wisniowieccy, Potoccy, Sanguszkowie, Czartoryscy as well as Ostrogscys, sculptures, retro furniture, Holland tile mantles, literature, weapon, cutlery and china. All-round upgrade in the same time had only given final accord to the appearance of Volyn nicest palace residence.

No sooner remaining owner of Mnisheks four years later having succeeded into patrimonial rights as he had to leave to France bringing along most valuable family relics which was two thousands books, family portraits, letters, heraldry researches. In the same time Vyshnivets palace for many years became a place of bargaining trade off where lots of previously thoughtfully and mindfully collected items were sold out, all that a laymen would be happy to pay cash for.

For more than sixty years 1852–1913 castle changed nine owners, that despite their titles and social status used one of the most lavish European palaces as the mean to accrue their perpetually depleting banking accounts. Palace lost its glamour, and priceless collection was sacked.

During the time before First World War an attempt made by yet another owner, Volyn aristocrat and nobleman Demidov, Pavel Oleksandrovich 1869–1935, and Kyiv architect, Wladyslaw Horodecki 1863–1930 was invited to join the cause. Unfortunately, war and revolution introduced its own adjustments: 25th Russian Army Corps utilized facilities followed by ministry of transitional government and Petlura lieutenants.

In the mid-1920s, the main building of Vyshnivets Palace accommodated a museum collection, while the remaining space was utilized as a school of craftsmanship.

Second World War became a venue and an argumentation for most recent forgoers shipping remains of the valuables to Moscow 1940–1941, and German Armed Forces used it as a police precinct and Gestapo 1941–1944 depriving architectural structure from those few showpieces still being there. Fire on the premises 1944 completed started ruination.

Post-war restoration of 1950th practically all together renewed outer appearance of the palace with only few back draws needed to be mentioned as inside facility remodeling performed, outside park area hadnt been worked on, palace yard grew with self-disseminated weeds, and plundering by local residents had taken place.

Only in 1963 Vyshnivets Palace recognized by authorities as monument of architectural art, although it still was being utilized for various business transactions and occupied as a club, a library, an apparel factory, and a school of craftsmanship.

Having Ukrainian Independence established reflecting soundly on its fortune: in 1993 there was historical and cultural researches conducted, castle officially became a branch of State Historic Architectural Sanctuary in the city of Zbarazh 1999. Later on it was included into the registry of National Sanctuary of Ternopil Castle 2005, program of restoration and intended usage 2005–2011 started, all none-associated business entities left the premises 2007.

On the year of 2014 main scope of construction work, inside restoration, park area, and fencing completed.

                                     

2. Architecture

Architecture of Vyshnivets Palace combines features of Late Baroque and Classicism. Having reconstruction completed, spacious palace took on classic appearance: elongated in prospective two story facade with its flanks being one level taller poses symmetrical architectural composition forming one side voiding rectangle. Central part of the facade containing ceremonial avant-corps decorated entry way has a triangular shield with a palatial ornamentation on it. The rear side of facade in between avant-corps has arch galleries. Gateway to the residence is accomplished majestically resembling antic triumphant entry.

Inside the palace, the framework is symmetrical with a hallway, stairways, and saloon. A few halls in the porter combined with wide arch crossings that house numerous pieces of art mirror gallery being once most known in-between dignified Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth residences of the 18th century.

                                     
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